Volume 6, Issue 2, Autumn 2011, Page 98-173
Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 98-111
During the survey period from January to November 2009, sixty one species were recorded, and the number of individuals are reached 15742 .
Nine species formed 66% of the numerical abundance in the sanctuary. The species (Greylag- Goose Anser anser, Little egret Egretta garzetta, Black taild godwit Limosa limosa, Slender billed Gull Larus genei, Ruff Philomachus pugnax, Kentish plover Charadrus alexandrinus, Black – winged stilt Himantopus himantopus, Collared pratincole Glareola pratincola and Avocet Recurvirosta avoseta). The waders species were move dominant of others groups.
The drought have anegative effect on the status of waterfowls gradual decrease in number of species and individuals especialy during the last six months were the water was limited to few shallow
ponds also disappear of some endimic species.
Individual and combined effects of Copper and Lead on the fresh water crab Sesarma boulengeri from Shatt Al-Arab , Basrah . Iraq
Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 112-124
The acute toxicity by single or combined of Copper and Lead on the fresh water crab Sesarma boulengeri ( Calman , 1920 ) was evaluated by static bioassays, calculating the values of LT50 (median lethal time) and LC50 (median lethal concentration), after exposure to concentrations (50,100,150,175 and 200) µg l-1.Each bioassay tested up to 96 hours, the survival time was decreased with increasing concentrations of Copper and Lead in the laboratory circumstances. Copper was more toxic to S. boulengeri than Lead, when tested individually. When tested in combination, the toxicity increased, and the expected mortalities were not similar to those observed mortalities, the effect of paired metals is synergistic and the two metals acted interactively. Toxicities of mixtures of Copper and Lead were assessed using the toxic-unit concept
Effect of Calcium Chloride on Hatching, Growth and Survival of Snails Lymnaea auricularia- Intermediat host of Fasciola gigantica
Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 125-133
The effect of three different concentration ( 1.0 , 2.0 and 2.5 gL) of calcium chloride (CaCl2 ) on hatching , growth and survival of Lymnaea auricularia snails serves as intermediate host of Fasciola gigantica parasites.
The current study showed that increasing of calcium chloride concentration lead to lower the rates of eggs hatching and effect on the rate of shell growth which recorded the highest weekly rate length of the snails in week 10 and reached ( 8.68 , 8.86 and 8.80 ) mm respectively , compared with control samples and the highest growth rate of the snails was recorded using 2.0 g L concentration and reach (
8.86 ) mm and lowest growth rate was recorded in control samples .As noted that calcium chloride effect on the percentage of survival snails, which that reached 30% in 1.0g/L and 10% in 2.0g/L and
2.5g/L compared with control samples 20%.
Toxicity of oil and dispersant mixtures to several species of molluscs collected from Shatt Al – Arab river
Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 134-147
The present toxicity experiments show that the oil and dispersant ( Corexit 8666 ) mixtures are more toxic to all species than either net crude oil or dispersant , net or diluted . In the case of BP 1100X and BP 1100 dispersants , however , the oil and dispersant mixtures are more toxic to M . tuberculata , C . fluminea and C . fluminalis than the oil alone and just as toxic as the dispersant alone when undiluted
, when the dispersant in the mixtures is diluted ( i.e. with river water ) , however , then the mixtures are relatively very low in toxicity . For L . auricularia , T . jordani , P . acuta and M . nodosa with BP
1100X and BP 1100 , the oil and dispersant mixtures are more toxic than oil alone and just as toxic as the net or diluted dispersant . For all species , the lower the concentration of dispersant in river water ( without any oil ) , the lower the mortalities ; the exception to this is the Corexit 8666 which resulted in a lower mortalities when net than when diluted for all species of molluscs . The order of sensitivity of species of molluscs tested are as follows : L . auricularia > P . acuta > M . nodosa > T . jordani > M . tuberculata > C . fluminalis > C . fluminea . The overall acute effects of hydrocarbons on the species of molluscs tested are abnormal activities , narcosis and anesthesia , the loss of ability to react to the external cue , rapture the tissues and die.
Activity of sulphate reducing bacteria isolated from Shatt Al Arab water on corrosion mild steel specimens in vitro
Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 148-158
The research included study of the corrosion effect of mix cultures of sulphte reducing bacteria isolated from non artificial environmental include waters of Shatt Al Arab river. The corrosion effect study on mild steel coupons supplied from Nalco Company during three exposure time include (30, 60 , 90) days , the rate of microbial corrosion was measured by lost weight, the result showed that the rate of corrosion increase with period time , the high corrosion rate was (0.8468) mg / cm2/ day through (90) days period , and the lowest corrosion rate was (0.4014) mg / cm2/ day through (30) days period.
Effect of water level decline in Saffia restoration site on the density and diversity of Rotifer, Al-Hawaizah Marshes, Iraq
Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 159-166
The community of Rotifers in Al Saffia was investigated during December 2008 to April 2009. List of species is given which consists of 24 species belonging to 16 genus . The genus Brachiouns consists of the highest number of species (5), Keratella (4), Lepadella(2). The highest density was recorded during December 2008 (27.18 ind./ L) and the lowest density was during April 2009 (7.82 ind./ L).
Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 167-173
This study address the problems experienced by the inhabitants of the southern Iraq marshes which result from recent as well as long term deprivation and suffering. The study limits its interest to the mental health problems that have social origins with wide scale spread among the population. Most of these problems seem to arise from the misconduct of the sociopolitical system which fail to promote the life and health and protect people from disastrous events in the recent past.
The study attempts, through record examination and direct interview with diseased individuals, to quantify the common mental illnesses experienced by marsh Landers.
The study covered 50 patients who were carefully studied to derive a picture of the mental ill- health of them as a subset of the marsh Landers> The variables studied included age, gender, type of illness, duration of illness, the life experience and the general social conditions under which these cases were living. .
A mattress of problems identified which affect a wide span of age and both sexes suggesting a common exposure to determinants.
The study came to the conclusion that the marsh Landers who used to be classical or traditional community with little mental problems are experiencing extensive pattern of various mental illnesses. These must reflect the painful experience during the last three decades.