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a Scientific journal founded by Ammar Charitable Foundation in collaboration with the Faculty of Science, University of Basra. date of first issue 2006 no. of issue per year (2) No. of per issue published between 2006-2013 (15) issue
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Journal Information

Publisher: Basrah University

Email:  marshbulletin@gmail.com

Editor-in-chief: Professor Dr. Abdul-Ridha A. Alwan

Managing Editor: Assistant Professor Dr. Nayyef M. Azeez

ISSN: 1816-9848

Iraq’s inland Water quality and their impact on the North-Western Arabian Gulf

Bayan A. Mahdi; Nadia Al-Mudaffar Fawzi

Marsh Bulletin, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 1-22

This review examines the changes in water quality that have taken place in the main Iraqi rivers, the Tigris, Euphrates and the Shatt Al-Arab River over the past few decades; and in particular, the effects of a reduction in fresh water supply, the pollution of these waterways and the impact of these aspects on the north-western Arabian Gulf.
A change in the quantity and quality of water due to the effects of upstream damming has significantly reduced the water flow to Iraq. In addition, the water quality is continuing to deteriorate in the absence of adequate river basin management programs, the direct dumping of untreated domestic and municipal wastes, agricultural chemicals, and hazardous industrial substances into the waterways. Such conduct is exerting an immense impact with harmful effects on public health and the environment.
Major evidence so far of environmental stress is the increasing infringement of marine waters into the Shatt Al-Arab estuary and its tributaries, which is dramatically affecting agricultural activities and the livelihood of farmers residing in the area. This encroachment has introduced some marine species to what was a previously brackish water environment. Further evidence is the aesthetic presentation of the Shatt Al-Arab River and almost all its branches were rubbish including plastic bottles and bags, other solid wastes and sewerage directly disposed. Further studies of these issues are required to determine the short and long-term environmental impacts on both the marshes and the Arabian Gulf.

Distribution and sources of fatty acids in sediment cores from Al-Hammar marsh, southern Iraq

Hamid T. Al-Saad; Abass A. Hantoosh; Ali A. Douabul; Amina Ak. Al-Timari

Marsh Bulletin, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 23-37

The distribution and concentration of fatty acids in sediment cores from two stations , in the beginning (core 1) and in the end (core 2) at Hor Al-Hammar marshes Southern Iraq, were measured by high resolution capillary gas chromatography. Core was dated by employing Pb-210 method. Other relevant parameters were measured in core section including total organic carbon, C: N and carbonates in additional to grain size analysis. The sedimentation rate at the sampling station was found to be 0.7 cm/y. Thus the core sampled represents the period from 1960 to 1988.
The average concentration of fatty acids in core sections were ranged from 42.25 to 10.66 µg/g dry weight for core 1 and from 30.44 to 2.43 µg/g dry weight for core 2. Chromatography exhibit a bimodal distribution, with maximum at C16 and C26 a strong even to odd carbon number predominance, typical of biogenic source (phytoplankton, terrigenous plant wax and microbial sources).

Similarity and dissimilarity of macroinvertebrates, fishes and quatic birds species composition in three major marshes of southern Iraq

Sumaya M. Ahmed; Najah A. Hussain

Marsh Bulletin, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 38-48

Whittaker beta diversity formula was applied to detect similarity and dissimilarity of species composition of Macroinvertebrates, total number of fishes, native fish and aquatic birds species in three major southern Iraqi marshes (Al-Huwaiza, East and West Hammar ). The outcome results indicated that species dissimilarity increased in southern marshes, (i) Due to enlarge of land isolation between southwest and southeast marshes, (ii) Intrusion of exotic, alien and marine fishes and crustacean species,( iii ) Third escalation of water salinity and progressive effect of the Gulf tide. Moderate levels of species dissimilarity were obtained for mancroinvertebrates, total number of fishes and aquatic birds among West Hammar and Al-Huwaiza marshes, on contrary species similarity increased for macroinvertbrates groups and aquatic birds between East and West Hammar marshes. Migrating marine fish species cause moderate dissimilarity in total number of fish species between East Hammar and Al-Huwaiza (βw :1.357), while good similarity value for native fish species was recorded (βw :1.262) in East and West Hammar. Presence or absences of tidal muddy shores led to low dissimilarity (βw:1.321-1.329) in aquatic birds species existed in the three marshes. Gradual rise of species dissimilarity of southern marshes taxa seemed to be inevitable with the escalation of environmental degradation of southern Iraqi marshlands .

Assessment the potential of scale formation and the corrosivity of Al - Najebia thermal power plant cooling system water

Inas K. Mohammed

Marsh Bulletin, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 49-64

The aim of this research is to study the potential of scale formation and corrosivity of the water using in Al-Najebia power station cooling system in Basrah province, south Iraq.
water indices such as langelier saturation index, Ryznar stability index, Pukuriuos scaling index and Larson ratio have been used for predicting the corrosive, scale forming .
The study is based on the obtained corrosion and scale data for the period from Jan.2012 to Dec. 2012 , samples were collected from Al-Najebia Power Station cooling system water , the analytical results were used to calculate the indices, because of seasonal flucations in water characteristics, sampling was performed twice monthly.
The quantitative analytical methods were employed. All indices were calculated the mean values of langelier saturation index (-0.3317), Ryznar stability index mean value was (7.7833), Puckurius scaling index mean value was (6.216) while the mean value of Larson Ratio was (29.59) and preliminary results confirmed that the studied water has a tendency to corrosion and scale formation, also the results revealed that the indices were correlated with measured metal ions.

Spatial and Temporal distribution of fish eggs and larvae abundance at Shatt Al-Arab estuary in the northwest Arabian Gulf

Mutlak; F. M; M. T. K; Al-Okailee

Marsh Bulletin, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 79-87

Ichthyoplankton sampling was conducted at two stations in the northwestern part of Arabian Gulf (Shatt Al-Arab estuary A1 and Khor Abdulla A2), during June 2012 to May 2013. A total of 1426 fish eggs and 2118 fish larvae were collected using conical plankton net (mesh size 300µm). Three families (Sciaenidae, Soleidae and Clupeidae) of fish eggs and eight families (Gobiidae, Engreaulidae, Sciaenidae, Soleidae, Clupeidae, Polynemidae, Bothidae and Cynoglossidae) of fish larvae were identified. Sciaenid fish egg comprised 50.49% of all eggs collected and peak of abundance (45.2 egg/10m²) at station in June. Three fish families (Gobiidae, Engreaulidae and Clupeidae) comprised 85.5% of all larvae collected. Maximum abundance of gobiid larvae at station A1 in May (25.8 larvae/10m²), Engraulid larvae (48.3 larvae/10m²) at station A2 in May. Clupid larvae (20.4 larvae/10m²) at station A2 in June. Fish larvae abundance were significant positively correlated with surface temperature and surface salinity at both stations. This study showed the importance of northwestern part of Arabian Gulf as spawning sites and nursery for many fishes.

Morphological and histological study of eye development in embryos and larvae of common carp fish Cyprinus carpio(L.1758).

Ahmed Muhassin Moajer; Jassim Hameed Saleh; Zeyad abdulkadhim Mezyad

Marsh Bulletin, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 88-98

Growth and development of the eye in common carp fish were studied by using a several samples of the eggs, larvae and juveniles during artificial fertilization in the marine science center hatchery of fishes. Temperature of the Water in the incubators was 26C and the incubation of eggs was 38 hr. The study included the morphological and histological of the formation of the eye, optic primordial appeared after 12 of fertilization in a form evagination from both sides of the forebrain and slightly oval elongated and then characterized optic vesicle, then lens was appeared , it was spherical shape, histological the optic cup characterized at 24 and 28 hours of incubation is spherical and regular with the advent of the cornea lens and iris in addition to the room of the organization of the eye and the vitreous chamber. the retina was formed at the age of 24 hours of incubation from ganglion cell layer (Gcl)inner nuclear layer(Inl).And then followed by the other layers that fit their appearance with the age of the embryo, completed growth and the emergence of layers of the retina at the age of almost 30 days after hatching.

A Wetland Future for Iraq?

Clayton Rubec

Marsh Bulletin, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 114-130

A national effort to draw attention to the importance and restoration of degraded Iraqi wetlands was initiated in 2004 with significant international interest and assistance. Overall, that enthusiasm focused on specific regions of Iraq and opened doors to consider all wetlands in Iraq. Over the next nine years, numerous projects to restore wetland habitat for fish and wildlife and for human use focused on the Chebayish and Hawizeh Marsh areas of southeastern Iraq. The Iraq Ministry of Environment, Iraq Ministry of Water Resources, and Nature Iraq have launched national biodiversity surveys and Key Biodiversity Areas assessments throughout the nation. A key milestone in 2007 was Iraq’s accession to its first international environmental treaty, the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. Iraq’s first Ramsar Wetland of International Importance at Hawizeh Marsh, the Central Marshes National Park, and draft management plans for both areas were created. More progress on these projects and other national wetland initiatives has not been fully possible yet.
Two national initiatives to advance wetland conservation across Iraq should be pursued: (i) a national wetland policy that appeals to all the regions and peoples of Iraq; and (ii) a plan to expand the influence of the Ramsar Convention across Iraq. These efforts could support expansion of the number of Ramsar sites in Iraq as announced in Iraq’s National Report to the Ramsar Convention in 2012. This paper discusses each of the issues noted here, drawing on examples in other jurisdictions. The development of the oil and gas deposits associated with the Hawizeh Ramsar site is also discussed

Specialization, trophic breadth and diet overlap of thirteen small marine fish species from Shatt Al-Basrah Canal, Southern Iraq

M. M. Taher

Marsh Bulletin, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 118-130

Specialization, trophic breadth and diet overlap of thirteen marine fish species from Shatt Al-Basrah Canal had been studied from July 2008 to June 2009. Data obtained revealed that seven species (Johnius belangerii, Platycephalus indicus, Silago arabica, Silago sihama, Thrysa hamiltoni, Thrysa mystex and Nematolosa nasus) were carnivorous, three species (Acanthopagrus latus, Leiognathus bindus and Boleophtalmus dussumieri) were herbivorous and one species (Scomberoides commersonnianus) was a piscivorous. Data obtained also revealed that six species were high specialized feeders (P. indicus, J. belangerii, B. dussumieri, T. hamiltoni, S. commersonnianus, A. latus) having breadth range 0-0.25, five species were low specialized feeders (T. mystex, N. Nasus, S. Sihama, Liza subviridis, Liza kulengeri) having breadth range 0.26-0.49 and two species were generalized feeders (S. arabica, L. bindus) having breadth range 0.50-1.00. The Morisita indexes of feeding overlap showed high overlap (0.97) between L. subviridis and B. dussumieri, medium overlap (0.65, 0.60) between J. belangeri, P. indicus and between J. belangerii, T. hamiltoni respectively, low overlap (0.10-0.49) for 25 occasion (32%), very low overlap (less than 0.10) for 38 occasion (48.7%) and thirteen occasions (15.4%) of having any feeding overlaps.

Effect of pH on hatching and survival of Larvae of common carp Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758)

Faleh M. Al- Zaidi; Jassim H. Saleh; Nawras A. Al- Faiz

Marsh Bulletin, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 58-64

Artificial hatching of common carp eggs was fulfilled in Marine Sciences Center hatchery. Fertilized eggs was taken from hatchery and was distributed in seven concentrations of pH (4.5, 5.5, 6.5, 7, 8.5, 9, 9.5). The results show that segmentation of eggs begin in each concentration especially in the critical concentrations (4.5, 5.5, 9 and 9.5). Then the eyes were formed and other organs respectively. After 48 hours hatching occurs by 85% in all concentrations. Hatched larvae were distributed on the same concentrations, survival rates of larvae in concentrations ( 4.5, 5.5, 6.5, 7, 8.5, 9 , 9.5) were 50% , 54% , 60% , 95% , 90% , 20% , 0 respectively after 24 hours from hatching.

Geoelectric monitoring of saline water intrusion in dibdibba aquifer at zubair-Safwan area/ southern Iraq

Emad H. Al-Khersan

Marsh Bulletin, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 48-68

78 Vertical Electrical Sounding measuring points using Schlumberger array were carried out within Basrah Governorate at Zubair-Safwan area, southern Iraq, in order to determine the number of the underlying layers, depths and their thicknesses, boot to groundwater table and its influence by the saline water intrusion which coming from Khur Al-Zubair coastal or even deep layers towards Dibdibba Aquifer. Qualitative interpretation was applied using the type study of the electrical field curves for these VES's to get preliminary picture for lateral and vertical variations in underlying layers resistivities and lithology. Moreover, quantitative interpretation was carried out using IPI2win program. Five space sections and five geoelectrical sections were then drawn along five profiles for each one. The interpretation of these sections clarified that there are three underlying groundwater bearing beds. Thicknesses and resistivities of these beds were calculated depending on the assistance of the drilled observation wells. It is noticed that there is a decreasing in the apparent resistivity values with depth especially at the groundwater bearing intervals. This is because of the salinity increases occurred in groundwater at these intervals. Due to unprogrammed groundwater pumping, high concentration of salinity in the lower part of Dibdibba aquifer might be altering the upper part of it and changing it from fresh-brackish to saline. Large reduction in the apparent resistivity values is also observed at the eastern parts of the study area near Khur Al-Zubair boundaries which indicates high electrical conductivity values; however, this is led to the increasing of the saline water that probably comes from the sea. This fact is certainly approved by the interpretation of the extracted iso-resistivity contour map and an irregular front line separates between low (saline) and high (brackish to fresh) resistivities can be recognized along this map

Thermodynamic parameters of inorganic Pyrophosphatase in marshland south of Iraq

A.M.S. Al-Ansari; M.A. Abdulkareem and

Marsh Bulletin, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 95-103

Marsh land ( south of Iraq ) is of great international interest at present time. Studying some microbial properties including enzyme activities , can be useful as indicator of soil quality of this area. General conclusion of enzyme reaction in soil can be reached from the thermodynamic parameters of the enzyme – soil system. Hence , this experiment was conducted to study thermodynamic parameters ( Q10 , Ea , ΔHa , ΔSa and ΔGa ) for inorganic pyrophosphatase enzyme in this soil as compared with their counter parts of other soils of south of Iraq ( Al-Zubair and Abul-Khasib soils ). Results indicated that Q10 and ΔGa values of marsh land did not significantly differs from other soils under study with average values of about 1.11 and 14.55 KJmol -1 ,
respectively. Ea values of marsh land , Al-Zubair and Abul-Khasib soil were 8.72 , 7.47 and 9.53 KJmol -1 ,

respectively. ΔSa values for marsh land soil

(–10.49 J deg -1 mol -1 ) were lower than those of Abul-Khasib ( –7.85 J deg -1 mol -1) but higher than those of Al- Zubair (–14.55J deg -1 mol -1 ).
ΔHa values were in order of Abul-Khasib ( 12.08 KJmol -1 ) > marsh land ( 11.27 KJmol -1 ) > Al-Zubair

soil ( 10.02 KJmol -1 )

A Wetland Future for Iraq?

Clayton Rubec

Marsh Bulletin, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 114-130

A national effort to draw attention to the importance and restoration of degraded Iraqi wetlands was initiated in 2004 with significant international interest and assistance. Overall, that enthusiasm focused on specific regions of Iraq and opened doors to consider all wetlands in Iraq. Over the next nine years, numerous projects to restore wetland habitat for fish and wildlife and for human use focused on the Chebayish and Hawizeh Marsh areas of southeastern Iraq. The Iraq Ministry of Environment, Iraq Ministry of Water Resources, and Nature Iraq have launched national biodiversity surveys and Key Biodiversity Areas assessments throughout the nation. A key milestone in 2007 was Iraq’s accession to its first international environmental treaty, the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. Iraq’s first Ramsar Wetland of International Importance at Hawizeh Marsh, the Central Marshes National Park, and draft management plans for both areas were created. More progress on these projects and other national wetland initiatives has not been fully possible yet.
Two national initiatives to advance wetland conservation across Iraq should be pursued: (i) a national wetland policy that appeals to all the regions and peoples of Iraq; and (ii) a plan to expand the influence of the Ramsar Convention across Iraq. These efforts could support expansion of the number of Ramsar sites in Iraq as announced in Iraq’s National Report to the Ramsar Convention in 2012. This paper discusses each of the issues noted here, drawing on examples in other jurisdictions. The development of the oil and gas deposits associated with the Hawizeh Ramsar site is also discussed

Effect of Calcium Chloride on Hatching, Growth and Survival of Snails Lymnaea auricularia- Intermediat host of Fasciola gigantica

S.A. M. AL-Asadi

Marsh Bulletin, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 125-133

The effect of three different concentration ( 1.0 , 2.0 and 2.5 gL) of calcium chloride (CaCl2 ) on hatching , growth and survival of Lymnaea auricularia snails serves as intermediate host of Fasciola gigantica parasites.
The current study showed that increasing of calcium chloride concentration lead to lower the rates of eggs hatching and effect on the rate of shell growth which recorded the highest weekly rate length of the snails in week 10 and reached ( 8.68 , 8.86 and 8.80 ) mm respectively , compared with control samples and the highest growth rate of the snails was recorded using 2.0 g L concentration and reach (
8.86 ) mm and lowest growth rate was recorded in control samples .As noted that calcium chloride effect on the percentage of survival snails, which that reached 30% in 1.0g/L and 10% in 2.0g/L and
2.5g/L compared with control samples 20%.

Specialization, trophic breadth and diet overlap of thirteen small marine fish species from Shatt Al-Basrah Canal, Southern Iraq

M. M. Taher

Marsh Bulletin, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 118-130

Specialization, trophic breadth and diet overlap of thirteen marine fish species from Shatt Al-Basrah Canal had been studied from July 2008 to June 2009. Data obtained revealed that seven species (Johnius belangerii, Platycephalus indicus, Silago arabica, Silago sihama, Thrysa hamiltoni, Thrysa mystex and Nematolosa nasus) were carnivorous, three species (Acanthopagrus latus, Leiognathus bindus and Boleophtalmus dussumieri) were herbivorous and one species (Scomberoides commersonnianus) was a piscivorous. Data obtained also revealed that six species were high specialized feeders (P. indicus, J. belangerii, B. dussumieri, T. hamiltoni, S. commersonnianus, A. latus) having breadth range 0-0.25, five species were low specialized feeders (T. mystex, N. Nasus, S. Sihama, Liza subviridis, Liza kulengeri) having breadth range 0.26-0.49 and two species were generalized feeders (S. arabica, L. bindus) having breadth range 0.50-1.00. The Morisita indexes of feeding overlap showed high overlap (0.97) between L. subviridis and B. dussumieri, medium overlap (0.65, 0.60) between J. belangeri, P. indicus and between J. belangerii, T. hamiltoni respectively, low overlap (0.10-0.49) for 25 occasion (32%), very low overlap (less than 0.10) for 38 occasion (48.7%) and thirteen occasions (15.4%) of having any feeding overlaps.

Rainfall-Runoff modeling by using M5 model trees technique: an example of Tigris catchment area in Baghdad, Middle of Iraq

A.M. Atiaaa and H.B. Ghalib

Marsh Bulletin, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 125-135

This paper investigates the applicability of the M5 model trees technique to emulate rainfall-runoff transformation of Tigris catchment area in Baghdad city, Middle of Iraq. For building M5 model, a free of charge open –leading machine learning and data mining weka software is used. Four models are build firstly to study the interdependency among the input variables and to select the effective variables. The applicability of this technique is studied by predicting runoff (discharge) of Tigris River one and two months ahead. The results show the high accuracy of the M5 technique to identify low values and some of high values of flow with very high accuracy, but most of the high flows were underestimated. M5 model tree and other data-driven models could be used alone or corporation with physically-based models such as HEC-HMS to manage water resources
of Iraq after a detailed monitor hydrological programming surveys are employed

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