Volume 4, Issue 2, Autumn 2009, Page 98-189
A Review of the Water Quality of the Mesopotamian (Southern Iraq) Marshes Prior to the Massive Desiccation of the Early 1990s
Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 98-120
The marshes of southern Iraq range from in size from 8,000 to 30,000 km2. Delivery of freshwater to this system has been affected by the construction of water control structures both within Iraq and in neighboring countries. In the early 1990s, the Government of Iraq drained a large portion of this system and burned extensive stands of Phragmites. Less than 10% of these marshes were functioning normally by 2000 (Partow 2001, Brasington 2002).
This review summarizes the existing data on water quality of this vast and unique ecosystem prior to the Iraqi government’s decision to drain these marshes. These data come from numerous graduate theses and other investigations not readily accessible by the scientific community. Water quality variables considered included salinity, ionic composition, and a number of variables related to nutrient status.
These data show that salinity has increased over time, adversely affecting agriculture in southern
Iraq. Dissolved oxygen concentrations have generally been high, waters are typically slightly alkaline, and extensive submerged aquatic vegetation facilitates the settling of suspended solids. Nitrates are the predominant form of inorganic nitrogen, and the concentrations were low compared to other water bodies in Iraq. Nutrient limitation experiments indicated that the phytoplankton were nitrogen limited
Influence of some ecological factors on plant tall, cover percent and biomass of Phragmites australis in marshes of southern Iraq after inundation
Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 121-136
Common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin.ex Steud.) is one of the widely distributed plant species on earth, and considered a highly biological and ecological valuable plant species. P. australis of three Iraqi marshes (Huwaiza, Chebaish and East Hammar) after inundation was studied from 2006 to 2007. Different main factors were studied for plant vegetation cover in the marshes included water depth, electrical conductivity(EC), nutrient content in sediment and direct human impact. Significant differences in maximal aboveground biomass among the three marshes were observed, with positive correlation between increasing in water depth and nutrient content with plant tall, cover percent and biomass production. The result showed that P. australis have acclimatization to deep water with phenotypic plasticity through allocating more resources to stem weight and also by producing taller stems.
Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 137-147
Six fungal species were isolated for the first time in Iraq from surface sediment samples collected from different sites along Shatt Al –Arab river and its creeks at Basrah, these fungi include three hyphomycetes species:
Aspergillus campestris , Myceliophthora anamorph of Corynascus sepedonium,and
Tetracoccosporium paxianum, and three ascomycetes species: Emericellopsis glabra, Rhexothecium globosum ,and Sphaerodes quadrangularis.
Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 148-161
During a survey of the Copepoda of the southern Iraqi marshes, made between November 2005
– August 2008 , four calanoid copepods were identified which were not recorded before in the Marshes. These are: Acanthodiaptomus denticornis (Wierzejski, 1887) (after Kiefer, 1978) , Arctodiaptomus (Rhabdodiaptomus) salinus (Daday, 1885) , Eudiaptomus vulgaris (Schmeil, 1898) (after Kiefer, 1978) and Phyllodiaptomus irakiensis Khalaf, 2008 . The present article is the first of a series of articles on the Copepoda of Iraqi marshes.
Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 162-168
This study was carried out at the college of agriculture, Basrah university. Fifty blood samples taken from carp (Cyprinus carpio) analyzed by Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) under alkaline conditions at pH 9.8. The present study is aimed to provide the first insight into the genetic constitution of carp based upon analysis of Transferrin. Five genetic types of transferrin were revealed (Tf1Tf1, Tf2Tf2, Tf5Tf5, Tf3Tf2 and Tf1Tf5) in Carp controlled by four allelic genes of that locus (Tf1, Tf2, Tf3 and Tf5). These fractions are controlled by co dominant autosomal genes according to the Mendelian laws of inheritance. Differences in gene frequencies between alleles were observed. The gene frequencies of Tf1, Tf2, Tf3 and Tf5 were 0.15, 0.51, 0.29 and 0.05, respectively. The predominant genotype was Tf2Tf2 (44%) then Tf3Tf3 (22%). Transferrin was identified as highly polymorphic protein markers which is a result of importance for future genetic characterization of the carp .
Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 169-178
The pathogenic bacterial isolated from (120) milk samples collected for mastitis cattle were coagulase negative Staphelococcus sp, in 50(42%), samples, Streptococcus agalactia, in 40(33.3% ) and Staphelococcus aureus , in 30(25%) animals which infected with S. aureus had a cute infection. we found the contamination of milk with goagulase negative Staphelococcs are the most frequent bacterial infection in dairy cattle in farmers houses in basrah marshes. It mostly causes subacute form of the disease. S. agalactia are the second causative agents.
Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 179-189
More than 10 sites within marshlands were visited in three governorates in the south of Iraq. Amara, Nasiriya and Basra, to make survey to study the occurrence of Mammals in the marshlands. We tried in this present study to revive this filed particularly after more than 30 years without information about mammals in Iraq. Because of nature of more species of mammals is nocturnal, we followed their signs such as Tracks, Feces and Shelters to introduce them. This work is a part of project named