Volume 2, Issue 1, Spring 2007, Page 1-95
Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 1-10
Marsh land (south of Iraq) is of great interest at present time, therefore studying some of microbial properties, including enzyme activities, can be useful as indicator of soil quality of this area. Hence, this study was carried out to compare inorganic pyrophosphatase (EC 3. 6. 1. 1) activity in this soil with their counterparts of other soils of south Iraq (Al–Zubair and Abul–Khsib soils). Results indicated that inorganic pyrophosphatase activity at all substrate concentrations in marsh land soil was higher than those of Al–Zubair soil, but lower than those of Abul–Khasib soil. Expressed as PO4-3 – P released per gram soil per 5 hrs, the average Vmax values were 21.93, 37.23, and 33.33 while average Km values were 19.82, 18.26 and 29.77 for Al–Zubair, Abul–Khasib and marsh land soils, respectively. The results also revealed that the threshold of salinity negative effect on inorganic pyrophosphatase activity varies according to initial E.C. of soils (6 and 12 dS.m-1 for Abul–Khasib and
marsh land soils, respectively).
Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 11-17
This study included the determination of Ten chemical elements: Aluminum, Arsenic, Calcium, Copper, Iron, Lead, Lithium, Magnesium, Mercury and Zinc in water of 12 sites from southern Iraqi marshland. Recorded Calcium and Magnesium values were the highest in the range (5.1- 12.4) and (33.8 – 41.8)mg/l respectively, and higher in Al-Izz river of Central Marsh. Iron in the concentration of 0.02 mg/l was recorded in Al-Izz river of central marsh and Al-Tarabah village of Al-Hawiezah marsh only. Zinc is distributed widely in Iraqi marshes, the highest recorded value for Zn was in Hor Abu-Ijel which reached 0.61 mg/l. Copper was in a lower concentrations and reported values in certain places only with the highest value of 0.02 mg/l in Um- Nakhlah. Mercury and Aluminum each were recorded in one site, 0.11 mg/l Mercury in Al-Izz river and 13 mg/l
Al in South of Al-Hawiezh marsh. Lead, Lithium, and Arsenic were absent in this study.
Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 18-31
A survey on the filamentous microfungi inhabiting soil and mud of the tidal zone of Khawr Al-Zubair canal, Southern Iraq was conducted. A total of 144 species belonging to 61 genera were encountered from 99 soil and mud samples collected from different distances from the water edge. The isolates were assigned to 107 species of mitosporic fungi, 29 species of ascomycotina and 8 species of zygomycotina. Tidal zone of Khawr Al- Zubair supported a diverse species belonging to the genera Alternaria , Aspergillus (11 species for each),Bipolaris (8 species),Chaetomium, Curvularia, Ulocladium (7 species for each) , Stachybotrys (6 species)and Exserohilum (5 species). Eight species of marine fungi were isolated viz: Camarosporium roumerguerii, Exserohilum rostratum, Leptosphaeria sp., Monodictys pelagica, Trichocladium constrictum, T. ochrasporum,Zalerion martimum and Z.varium. There is apparently no characteristic fungal flora for tidal zone
of Khawr Al-Zubair canal except for frequent isolation of some well known marine species.
Effect of daily variations, diurnal fluctuations and tidal stage on water parameters of East Hammar marshland, Southern IRAQ .
Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 32-42
Water parameters of East Hammar marshland were measured during July 2006 in several sites .Spatial and temporal variations existed between the six sites sampled. Water temperature , salinity, conductivity ,total dissolved solids (TDS) and pH values were higher in flood tide ,on contrary dissolved oxygen, oxidation and reduction optional ( ORP )and flow rate were higher during ebb tide . Values of air ;water temperatures ,Salinity
,conductivity ,TDS and pH showed increasing trend as time progressing toward mid day, others decrease like dissolved oxygen ,ORP and transparency . Flow rate was faster during ebb than flood. Water level increased with flood tide. Time of the day and tidal stage have pronounced effect on several water parameters and must be
taken in consideration during sampling.
Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 43-63
The Zooplankton assemblages of the restored marshes was dominated by Rotifera, Coprpoda, Cladocera and free nematode respectively. Monthly changes were noticed in densities of these groups.Highest densities were recorded with temperature range 10-20 °C and salinities 1.5-2.0 ppt. dynamic seasonal fluctuations were noticed between zoo. Eighty seven species of zooplankton were identified, including 53 species of Rotifera, 24 of Cladocera, 4 Copepoda, and 6 other belong to Insect, Ostercoda and Nematode.
Rortifera contain more species than other groups in all surveyed stations (plankton and phytoplankton).
Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 64-79
Fifty seven species of water birds were recorded in three restored marshes during monitoring period (May 2004- May 2005), fifty four in Huwayzah marsh, fourty in Suq Shuyukh and twenty nine in East-Hammar. Pygmy cormorant (Phalacrocorax pygmeus) was the most dominant species in Huwayzah marsh, little egret (Egretta garzetta) in Suq Shuyukh, while little egret (Egretta garzetta) & gulls in East-Hammar. Higher numbersof individuals were recorded in Huwayzah marsh in comparison with other marshes.
Abundance, occurrence, seasonal changes and species composition of Macroinvertebrates in the restored Iraqi southern marshes
Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 80-95
78 species of macroinvertebrate were recorded in all monitored marshes comprised 17 snails, 40 insects, 4 of each shrimp and Annelid, 3 of each mussel, spider and crab, 2 Isopods, and 1 of amphipod and 1 Cirriped. Density of macroinvertebrates was higher on aquatic plants in all groups except stations Saddah, Burkah (both in East Hammar). the bottom substratum organisms were higher. Maximum species were recorded in Suq Shuyukh
52 species while minimum values were recorded in East Hammar 39 species.
Maximum density was recorded in East Hammar for snail 11.32-15.6 ind. /m2 on plant and 29.3-27ind/m2 on bottom substrate, while minimum density recorded in Um Alnaaj (Huwayzah) 2.2 ind. /m2. Maximum value for insect in Burkah bottom 6.3ind/m2 and minimum value in Suq Shuyukh bottom 0.33 ind. /m2. Maximum value for shrimp was recorded on plant of Um Alnaaj 15.17 ind. /m2 and minimum value on plant in Amia 6.9 ind. /m2. Seasonal changes in macroinvertebrates numbers were recognized ,that maximum numbers were recorded for all groups in spring, while minimum values were recorded in summer.
Snail had higher values of diversity in all marshes; moreover East Hammar was higher than that in other marshes in biological indices. Evenness was found to be 0.71 for shrimp in Huwayzah in comparison to Suq Shuyukh 0.45 and East Hammar 0.13. Higher diversity of shrimp in Suq Shuyukh 0.73, while insect had a comparable in seasonal values and low in all ecological indices between Huwayzah and Suq Shuyukh.