Volume 8, Issue 2, Autumn 2013, Page 114-202
Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 114-130
A national effort to draw attention to the importance and restoration of degraded Iraqi wetlands was initiated in 2004 with significant international interest and assistance. Overall, that enthusiasm focused on specific regions of Iraq and opened doors to consider all wetlands in Iraq. Over the next nine years, numerous projects to restore wetland habitat for fish and wildlife and for human use focused on the Chebayish and Hawizeh Marsh areas of southeastern Iraq. The Iraq Ministry of Environment, Iraq Ministry of Water Resources, and Nature Iraq have launched national biodiversity surveys and Key Biodiversity Areas assessments throughout the nation. A key milestone in 2007 was Iraq’s accession to its first international environmental treaty, the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. Iraq’s first Ramsar Wetland of International Importance at Hawizeh Marsh, the Central Marshes National Park, and draft management plans for both areas were created. More progress on these projects and other national wetland initiatives has not been fully possible yet.
Two national initiatives to advance wetland conservation across Iraq should be pursued: (i) a national wetland policy that appeals to all the regions and peoples of Iraq; and (ii) a plan to expand the influence of the Ramsar Convention across Iraq. These efforts could support expansion of the number of Ramsar sites in Iraq as announced in Iraq’s National Report to the Ramsar Convention in 2012. This paper discusses each of the issues noted here, drawing on examples in other jurisdictions. The development of the oil and gas deposits associated with the Hawizeh Ramsar site is also discussed
Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 131-147
In the present study, from April to August 2010, twelve sites of groundwater within Sulaimani Governorate ( Sharawany, Mama Yara, Peshasazy, Twi Malik, and Ibrahim Pasha) were selected in order to evaluate some physico – chemical characteristics and seasonal analysis (Spring, Summer, and Autumn ) for heavy metals ( Cr, Zn, Ni, Cd, and Pb ).
The results showed the range of studied parameters as following: 19.6 ºc-24.4 ºc for water temperature. pH value of the study sites range from 7.14-8.48 and 201, 50 - 943 μs.cm-1 for Electrical conductivity.
Heavy metals content of Chrome (Cr), Zinc (Zn), Nickel (Ni), Cadmium (Cd), and Lead (Pb) for each seasons ( Spring , Summer and Autumn ) in groundwater determined, Chrome concentration in water samples were 0 – 0.002 mg.l-1, 0 – 0.003 mg.l-1 and 0 – 0.002 mg.l-1 for all seasons respectively . On the other hand Zinc was ranged in water samples during Spring , Summer ,and Autumn from 0 – 3.759 mg.l-1 , 0 - 1.887 mg.l-1 0 – 0.026 mg.l-1 respectively While Nickel concentration were ranged between 0 – 0.002 mg.l-1 in Spring, 0 – 0.004 mg.l-1 in summer below detectable level ( BDL) in Autumn. Cadmium in the water samples ranged between 0 – 0.001 mg.l-1 for all seasons. Lead is the other metal was determined in groundwater ,it was below detectable level ( BDL) during Spring , and 0 – 0.001 mg.l-1, 0 – 0.007 mg.l-1 for Summer and Autumn respectively.
Impact of climate changes on the hydrological regime of Teeb River, Missan governorate, south of Iraq
Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 148-158
This study investigates the applicability of the two-parameter climate elasticity of streamflow index to assess the impact of global warming on regional hydrology of Teeb river watershed, south of Iraq. The results indicate that the streamflow response to rainfall and temperature anomalies exhibits a non-linear relationship. A 50% rainfall increase in the Teeb watershed results in a 10% increase in streamflow at mean temperature, but no increase in streamflow for temperature increases of 1.5 C. A 20% rainfall decrease results in a (20-30%) decrease in streamflow at mean temperature but only 10% decrease in streamflow if the temperature increases 1.5 C.Results also indicate that the streamflow elasticity for climate changes is a useful index to assess the sensitivity of streamflow to both precipitation and temperature departure. Water resource issues in the Teeb watershed are likely to be more critical if the adopted climate changes scenarios are correct.
Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 159-164
A comparative study was conducted between groundwater and surface water in the artificial spawning of common carpfishCyprinus carpio. The results showed thatartificialspawning in groundwater occurred earlyabout 45 days before artificial spawning in surface water, the temperature in the groundwater was 22 ◦C and hatching rate was higher in groundwater (85%) than in surface water
Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 165-181
Water quality surveys were designed and implemented during Dec.2011 to Feb. 2012 at three stations, in the Hor Al-Gebaysh, Al-Bourgah and Harer. Physical and chemical stressors including the natural water quality parameters, dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature, salinity and pH as well as nutrients were studied. The mean ranges of the following parameters were recorded: In Hammar Low value of salinity was 1.24 ppt in spring and higher was 2.11ppt in summer. Al-Bargah low value was 1.41ppt in winter and higher 2.01ppt in summer, while The lower value recorded in Al-Gebayesh was 1.12 ppt in winter but higher value was 1.98 ppt in Autum Air temperature in Al-Gebayesh the range was from 14.82- 36.08°C. Dissolved oxygen concentrations have generally been high. Determination of heavy metals (Pb , Cu and Ni) in three locations Al-Gebaysh, Al-Bourgah and Harer. The result showed that the Al-Bourgah and Harer as the most contaminated site with heavy metal. Levels of Ni in sediment ranged was 112 μg/g d.w in winter 2012,The levels of Pb higher was 41.61 μg/g d.w in Harer and lower 25.23 μg/g d.w in Al-Gebaysh, while Cu metal was 10.21 μg/g d.w in winter in Al-Bourgah to 19.12 μg/g d.w in Harer in summer
Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 182-192
Sixty five water samples were collected from the river Shatt Al-Arab for the period of October 2011 to October 2012, the data were collected on a monthly base form five stations Qurna, Al- Sindebad, Abu Alkhaseeb, Al-Seba and Al-Fao. Some physiochemical parameters were measured as ammonia, nitrate, total Nitrogen (sum of all Nitrogen forms: NH4 1+, NO21-, NO31- and organic Nitrogen), phosphate (PO4-P) Organic phosphorus and total phosphorus. The result indicate that organic form of Nitrogen is the dominant percentage, ranges from 65% to 73% and Ammonium range from 27% to 33%. The percentage of organic Phosphors form is the dominate form 84% to 98%, compared to Orthophosphurs form. This shows the presence of these parameters in high concentration thus indicate that the river suffer from organic pollution
Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 193-202
The paper presents document regarding concentration, distribution and possible sources of selected trace elements; Cd, Zn, Mn, Co, and V by using Atomic absorption in core sediments from Hor Al-Ezaim in Hor AL-Huwaiza, southern Iraq. The levels of elements showed a wide range of variations in different core depths. Contamination Factor (CF) and geo-accumulation index (Igeo) were calculated to understand the pollution status of the study area based on the background values. All the levels of trace elements in the sediment core samples were low, which indicates minimum pollution in these areas. Concentrations of these pollutants could be due to natural and anthropogenic sources