Volume 8, Issue 1, Spring 2013, Page 1-91
Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1-17
Ecological survey on some invertebrates of three stations (Al-Nasir, Al-Shatra, Al-Gharaf), in Al-Gharaf River was conducted. Some chemical and physical factors of the study area have been measured also species diversity, evenness and richness of the invertebrates has been quantified.
58 species of invertebrates were recorded comprised: 3 Annelida, 10 Mollusca, 3 Copepoda, 17 Cladocera, 20 Rotifera, 2 Ostracoda, 3 Crustacean larva. The highest density were recorded in st2 (3201.2 ind/m2 and 5742.22 ind/L) in comparison with st1 (3327 ind/m2 and 423.32 ind/L) and st3 (2369.2 in/m2 and 400.18 ind/L).
Mollusca had higher values of diversity in all stations (1.3, 0.9, 0.85 in st1, st2 and st3 respectively), moreover st1 was higher than that in other stations in ecological indices. Evenness was found to be 0.57, 0.62 for Cladocera and Copepoda in st1 in comparison to st2 (0.53, 0.8) and st3 (0.31, 0.51) respectively. Annelida had a comparable in seasonal values and low in all ecological indices among three stations.
Evenness varied inversely to the temperature. Invertebrate species diversity was positively correlated with chlorophyll a and nitrate, but negative correlated with temperature, salinity , and BOD.
Study of some Biochemical Parameters in liver of fresh water fish Liza abu (Heckel,1843) in Shatt Al-Arab River
Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 18-26
This study aimed to assess the influence of the environment on fish health . Samples of Liza abu fish were collected from four sites near some pollution sources in Shatt Al-Arab river / south of Iraq . Determination of glycogen , proteins and lipids contene in liver and GOT and GPT enzymes activity in blood plasma were carried out .The results showed that the biochemical changes induced in the liver were mainly represented by decrease of the glycogen, proteins and lipids content, as will as , GOT and GPT enzymes of fishs from Khandic canal and Shatt Al-Arab river (site 3) compared with other sites. significant different 0f biochemical parameters of fishes from near the Al-Najibyia power sites 1, and near of the electric power sites 2 ,were recorded compared with Mashab station site 4.
Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 27-38
A study was carried out to investigate the concentrations and spatial distribution of trace metals in the sediments of AL-Hawizeh Marsh in the southern part of Iraq . Sediment samples were taken from five sampling stations (Al-Adaim-1, Al-Adaim-11, Um El-Nia'j , Al-Soudah , Al-Baida).
Mean of concentrations of metals in the sediments ranged from 1365 to 3735 for Fe, 4.50 to 10.50 for Zn, 4.15 to 8.15 for Cu and 6.00 to 7.70 mgkg-1 for Pb . The degree of contamination in the sediments has been evaluated using Enrichment factor (EF), Geoaccumulation index (Igeo), Contamination factor (CF) and pollution load index (PLI) . EF indicates that Fe, Zn, Cu and Pb in sediments ranged from depletion to significantly enrichment while at station 1 Pb are very highly enriched. Igeo values showed that the sediments were background contamination (Igeo<1) for all stations . CF also show that the sediments have low contamination (CF<1) .PLI of the studied area ranged from 0.107 to 0.163 which indicated that the Marsh sediments were unpolluted (PLI=0-1).
Physiochemical Properties of Basrah oil refinery discharges and its potential effects on Shatt Al-Basrah Canal
Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 39-57
The study was from October 2009 to July 2010 to identify the efficiency of the wastewater treatment system within Basrah Oil Refinery, the discharges posed by drainage pipe, which flows near Shatt Al-Basrah Canal Monitoring was executed on Monthly basis included 18 criteria for the quality of discharged water, including, Water temperature, pH , Total Alkalinity, Turbidity , Total Suspended Solids, Total Dissolve Solids, Hydrogen Sulfide , Sulfate, BOD5, COD, Oil and Grease , Phenols, Nitrates, Phosphates and some Heavy Metals (Lead , Copper, Cadmium and Zinc). Some physiochemical values of refinery wastewater treatment unit were reduced in output(drainage pipe) in comparison with input .The values of some properties were acceptable depending on Iraqi limiting criteria except turbidity ,Total dissolved solids, Sulfide, Sulfate ,COD, Oil &Grease, Phenols. Water quality of Shatt Al-Basrah canal was influenced by some extreme values of refinery discharges seasonally. The study concluded that the wastewater treatment system was relatively efficient to reduce levels of oils and grease and total suspended solids, but it lacks for an integrated treatment units. There were potential impact of Basrah oil refinery discharge on Shatt Al-Basrah canal because of some problems in the treatment system that minimizes hazardous waste in the refinery.
Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 58-64
Artificial hatching of common carp eggs was fulfilled in Marine Sciences Center hatchery. Fertilized eggs was taken from hatchery and was distributed in seven concentrations of pH (4.5, 5.5, 6.5, 7, 8.5, 9, 9.5). The results show that segmentation of eggs begin in each concentration especially in the critical concentrations (4.5, 5.5, 9 and 9.5). Then the eyes were formed and other organs respectively. After 48 hours hatching occurs by 85% in all concentrations. Hatched larvae were distributed on the same concentrations, survival rates of larvae in concentrations ( 4.5, 5.5, 6.5, 7, 8.5, 9 , 9.5) were 50% , 54% , 60% , 95% , 90% , 20% , 0 respectively after 24 hours from hatching.
Comparison of total hardness, calcium and magnesium concentrations in drinking water (RO), and municipal water with WHO and local authorities at Basrah province, Iraq.
Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 65-75
Different drinking water including RO (reversed osmosis water) and municipal water where collected from ten principal locations at Basrah city through January, May and December 2012, using three samples a month, to obtain the concentrations of total hardness, calcium and magnesium ions, for comparison with Iraqi and WHO guidelines for drinking water. Results showed a decrease of total hardness, calcium and magnesium ions in RO water in comparison with permitted levels according to Iraqi and WHO guidelines. The average concentrations of total hardness, calcium and magnesium for RO water were 19.5-60 ppm, 5.9-11.8 ppm and 4.4-13.9 ppm respectively. The municipal water gave high or acceptable levels of hardness, calcium and magnesium ions in all study locations except Al Zubair region which recorded low concentration of magnesium ions at municipal water compared to Iraqi and WHO guidelines. According to the obtained results at the present study, RO water used for drinking in Basrah city is not found suitable for health, due to the deficiency of calcium and magnesium ions, such ions are demanded for human health.
Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 76-91
The communities of emergent macrophytes and environmental factors were studied in four sites of East Hammar marsh (Harer, Al-Sadda, Al-monthory and Burka)during January to December of 2010. This research aimed to identify possible present and past data of some environmental factors and human activities in the surrounding land-use. Quantitative data were collected on emergent macrophytes density, vegetation cover, biomass and their relationships with environmental factors and human activities(cutting and grazing processes). Three different perennial species Typha domingensis, Phragmites australis and Schoenoplectus litoralis were dominated in East Hammar is subject to many anthropogenic activities and impact of human toward emerged plants vegetation cover and biomass was more than changing in water quality of the marsh.