Volume 7, Issue 1, Spring 2012, Page 1-101
Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1-16
Aquatic macrophyte species in the Saffia Nature Reserve (SNR) were studied between December 2008 and November 2009 to find out the status of the communities, and also establish a database. Monthly samples were taken for quantitative and qualitative analysis. A total of 33 plant species were recorded twelve (belonging to nine families) were hydrophytes. Phragmites australis appeared as the most dominant community in all the Reserve whereas Typha domingensis and Schoenoplectus litoralis were only found in certain areas as small patches. Variations in the species components and a decrease in vegetation cover (as percentage) were observed. During the last three months(September, October and November) of the study most hydrophytes (except for two species P. australis and T. domingensis) disappeared, instead salt tolerant species like Tamarix ramosissima became dominant as the SNR suffered from desertification due to reduce water inflows from the rivers Tigris and Al-Kargha. Recently, the situation has worsen due to the closing of a crucial stream from Iran into the Reserve. The disappearance of many important aquatic native species of Southern Iraq in the SNR is ongoing with enormous negative effects for biodiversity as a whole.
Bioaccumulation of some heavy metals (Pb, Cd and Cu) in common carp Cyprinus carpio relevant to their concentration in water and sediment of Al-Masab Alamm for Al-Nassiriyia city.
Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 17-26
Concentration of some heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu) were determined in water, sediments and tissues of Cyprinus carpio collected from Al-Masab Alamm during winter 2010.The concentrations of the heavy metals in water were within the international permissible level Cu had the highest accumulating level in liver and muscles, whilst Cd had the lowest.
The Bio-Concentration Factors (B.C.F) and Bio-Sedimentation Factors (B.S.F) of all metals in fish from water were greater than those from sediments. This lead to the conclusion that fish bioaccumulationsource with these metals was from water.
The quantity determination of total carbohydrates and monosaccharides from some green algae (Chlorophyta)
Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 27-38
The present study was employed the determination of total carbohydrates and monosaccharides from three green algal species are : Chlorella vulgaris, Cladophora crispata and Ulothrix cylindricum isolated from (Al-Ashar,Abul Khaseeb and Garmat –Ali) rivers in Basra.
The results revealed that carbohydrate concentrations reach about (280, 200,120) μg/g in Cl. crispata , U. cylindricum and C. vulgaris Respectively. Gas chromatography technique (GC) the identification of the monosaccharides glucose , rhaminoes, galactose, xyloes & ribose was done, which were differs in their concentration and existence together with different of the algal species. C. vulgaris contain glucose ,ribose , xyloes , rhaminoes ,& galactose in concentrations are (11.5, 8.6 , 8.7 , 8.8 , 8.6 ) % respectively , while Cl. crispata contain rhaminoes, galactose, xyloes, & ribose in concentrations (11.49, 12.3, 10.5, 13.3)% respectively , and U. cylindricum contain a galagtose , xyloes, ribose in concentrations (12.5 , 11.4, 10.5) % respectively .
Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 39-47
In this review the past and updated contributions on aquatic fungi in Iraq are provided. Up to date, 29 species of freshwater fungi (water molds) belong to the order Saprolegniales (Oomycota) were recorded and represented by four genera namely; Achlya, (11 species), Dictyuchus (6 species), Calyptralegnia (2 species) and Saprolegnia (10 species) and two species of Olpidium (Chytridiomycota). These fungi were isolated mainly from waters of Shatt Al-Arab River and its creeks in Basrah. While 33 species of marine fungi have been recorded and isolated from various submerged wood and dead plants in saline and freshwater of southern Iraq. Literatures concerning the ecological investigations on aquatic fungi in this region were also cited in this review.
Geoelectric monitoring of saline water intrusion in dibdibba aquifer at zubair-Safwan area/ southern Iraq
Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 48-68
78 Vertical Electrical Sounding measuring points using Schlumberger array were carried out within Basrah Governorate at Zubair-Safwan area, southern Iraq, in order to determine the number of the underlying layers, depths and their thicknesses, boot to groundwater table and its influence by the saline water intrusion which coming from Khur Al-Zubair coastal or even deep layers towards Dibdibba Aquifer. Qualitative interpretation was applied using the type study of the electrical field curves for these VES's to get preliminary picture for lateral and vertical variations in underlying layers resistivities and lithology. Moreover, quantitative interpretation was carried out using IPI2win program. Five space sections and five geoelectrical sections were then drawn along five profiles for each one. The interpretation of these sections clarified that there are three underlying groundwater bearing beds. Thicknesses and resistivities of these beds were calculated depending on the assistance of the drilled observation wells. It is noticed that there is a decreasing in the apparent resistivity values with depth especially at the groundwater bearing intervals. This is because of the salinity increases occurred in groundwater at these intervals. Due to unprogrammed groundwater pumping, high concentration of salinity in the lower part of Dibdibba aquifer might be altering the upper part of it and changing it from fresh-brackish to saline. Large reduction in the apparent resistivity values is also observed at the eastern parts of the study area near Khur Al-Zubair boundaries which indicates high electrical conductivity values; however, this is led to the increasing of the saline water that probably comes from the sea. This fact is certainly approved by the interpretation of the extracted iso-resistivity contour map and an irregular front line separates between low (saline) and high (brackish to fresh) resistivities can be recognized along this map
Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 69-101
In April 2006, UNEP launched an extension to its initial project titled _Support for the Environmental Management of the Iraqi Marshlands._ The project extension (Phase II-A), with funding by the Government of Italy, supports data collection and analysis of water, environment, and socio-economy parameters, data sharing on a uniform platform, and providing hardware, software, and necessary training to utilize such information sharing platform.
UNEP-DTIE-IETC organized a Technical Meeting on data gaps needed to support suitable environmental management of the Iraqi Marshlands, during 27-30 June 2006. Officials from Ministry of Municipalities and Public Works (hereinafter _MMPW_) in consultation with UNEP-DTIE-IETC developed the terms of reference for data collection on solid waste management data, basic socio-economic and demographic data and Marshland Information Network (MIN) updating during the Technical Meeting. UNEP-DTIE-IETC and MMPW concluded a Memorandum of Understanding on 22 August 2006 and, MMPW developed Terms of Reference for an implementing agency to carry out the above-mentioned activities.
1. To conduct two field surveys within designated areas inside the Marshlands on (1) Solid Waste Management and (2) Demographic and Socio-economic data.
2. To perform analysis of data collected from field surveys and present data in user-friendly manner in order to upload onto to the Marshlands Information Network to share data.
3. To utilize survey as pilot studies to establish a system to preserve, document, and comprehensively modernize a full database that will enable and facilitate the process of socio-economic development in the Marshlands region.
A memorandum of understanding was concluded between UNEP and Thi-Qar University in April 2007 to carryout the above surveys in nine cities and towns identified by MMPW. Surveys were carried-out during June to September 2007 under the overall coordination and supervision of UNEP-DTIE-IETC.