Volume 6, Issue 1, Spring 2011, Page 1-97
Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 1-8
For studying the quality of Reverse Osmosis drinking water in storage tanks an investigation covering 21 selected locations in Basrah City Centre conducted to take the samples from them, Reverse Osmosis storage water samples were tested for their chemical constituents. Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cl , HCO3,and total hardness (T.H.), total dissolved solids (T.D.S.), and pH values. Comparing the levels of that chemical constituents with the Global levels and with regional water standard levels and with local water standard levels also with three kinds of bottled drinking water products, shows that studied parameters of storage Reverse Osmosis drinking water are acceptable with the mentioned standards. The storage Reverse Osmosis drinking water was potable because there was no great change in the quality.
Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 9-22
The determination of trace metals (Cd , Pb , Mn ,Zn ,Cu , Ni and Fe ) in three locations Al-Mushab , Al-Nagarh and Al-Bourgah , of southern part of Al-Hammar marsh in 2009 during both the dry period ( March , April and May) and the wet period (September , October and November) , were achieved by means of Flame Absorption Spectrophotometer were determined in sediment samples . The result showed that the Al-Mushab as the most contaminated site with Zn and Pb, Al-Nagarh as the lowest contaminated with all metals while Al-Bourgah as the most contaminated with Cd , Co, Cu , and Ni .The concentrations of trace metals are effected by chemical and physical parameters .The contamination with trace metals may determined to the health of the aquatic ecosystem and the rural communities that utilize the marsh water for domestic purposes without any treatment .The sediment pollution with heavy metals through to be due to different sources such as urban wastes , industrial effluents , land washout and boats activities
Application of remote Sensing Techniques to Map the Paleochannels of Shatt Al-Arab and Khor Al-Zubair, Southern Iraq
Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 23-31
The study area covers the eastern and western part of Shatt Al-Arab River to Khor Al-Zubair channel and the north western coast of the Arabian Gulf. The application of remote sensing techniques on the satellite image Landsat 7 ETM+ (2003) indicates many local and regional interesting observations, which explain many geomorphological features in this area. This geomorphological analysis show five paleochannels; two of them located to the west and the other three to the east of the actual channel of Shatt Al-Arab River, respectively. The image processing reveals also that there are many extinct paleo irrigation systems connected to that five paleochannels and ending to the northern coast of the Arabian Gulf. The isopach maps of equal elevations provide the presence of levee’s less than 3m in height. These levee’s match with the actual meandering in the Shatt Al-Arab River. This could explain the paleo irrigation of the southern part of Shatt Al-Arab River and Behmashir River channels. Two paleo river lines are also distinguished around the actual channel of Khor Al-Zubair. These observations could be related to the tectonic settings of this area.
Histopathological effects of toxic alga Nostoc muscurum on juvenile grass carp fish (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val. 1844 )
Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 32-61
In the present study, the grass carp fish (Ctenopharngodon idella) was divided into three groups, each of them was force feeding ; group (A)on toxic alga Nostoc muscurum only , group (B) on mixture of toxic alga N. muscurum and clover and group (C) served as the control group on clover only. The tissue sections which were made from fish organs that have been investigated a long two periods (after 24 h and after 15 days) , and they proved that the alga N. muscurum have toxic effect on the organs of grass carp fishes (gills , intestine , liver and kidney) in A and B groups and the degree of damage depend on the long time the experiment tacks.
At first , the causal relationship of tissue damage with the presence of microcystin-containing (N. muscurum ) were investigated in grass carp fish .
In gills filament the histopathological changes are represented by aneurism and congestion of capillaries , the adhesion and change in the shape of the secondary gill lamellae , increase in the number of epithelial cells and swelling of epithelial cells .These changes increased after 15 days , they were represented by detachment of epithelial layer of the secondary gill lamellae . The chondrodysplasia in the supporting cartilage of gill filament and atrophy and disappearance of the secondary gills lamellae were observed in mixture group only as changes.
The histopathological changes of intestine were very severe after 15 days and were represented by the increase in the proliferation of columnar epithelial cells , necrosis of lining epithelial tissue and the vascular degeneration of smooth muscles cells in circular layer of tunica muscularis.
after 24 hours, the histopathological changes in liver were confined by the congesting of sinusoid with the appearance of yellow patches through the liver cords. The hepatocytes in the liver of group A were seen as normal , but in the mixture group B the location of nucleolus of these cells appeared abnormal .While after 15 days the latter changes appeared in hepatocytes of both groups (A and B) and represented the beginning of necrosis which were described .
In kidney , the histopathological changes occurred in all structures of the kidney of fish in the both groups (A and B) . In addition , after 24 hours , in renal tubules , the changes were represented by metaplasia in lining epithelial tissue and their hollow disappeared, the cells of that tubules are lost the polarization in tissue and a change in their nucleus . In glomerules , was noted the proliferative glomerionephritis then a disappearance of bowman's space . Also a necrosis occurred in hematopoietic tissue .However , after 15 days , all of that changes are also observe in two groups (A and B) , as well as the necrosis of some parts of the epithelial lining of renal tubules.
Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 62-72
The hatchability of eggs and the fecundity and survival of adult of Lymnaea auricularia snails was investigated in different pH and salinities.
The current study showed that egg masses and hatchlings to be considerably more sensitive to salinity than the adult snails, while PH concentration unaffected on the hatching of eggs in all groups.
The results revealed that L. auricularia snails remain alive in all concentrations and survival of these hatchlings was adversely affected by salinities as low as 0.5% and a salinity of 2.5 % was lethal within 10 weeks. In contrast, adult survival was has no effected in all concentrations of PH and all snails are survived up to 10 weeks.
Effect of freezing and some preservatives on morphometric characters of Barbus luteus (Pisces: Cyprinidae) collected from Qurna Marshes, South of Iraq
Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 73-81
A total of thirty specimens of Barbus luteus (Heckel, 1843) from Qurna Marshes north of Basrah in November 2008 were collected. Seven morphometric characters (total length, standard length, body depth, head length, body width, snout length and eye diameter) of specimens were measured to determine the effect of freezing and preservation during the study period (11 week). The different preservatives were prepared as follows: 10% formalin, 70% alcohol and freezing experiment. The results showed three types of effects on morphometric characters: Shrinkage, increase and no effect, the greatest shrinkage was noticed in body depth of specimens which preserved in 10% formalin, the greatest increase was in head length of specimens which preserved in freezing and no effect was noticed in snout length and eye diameter which preserved in 10% formalin and total length which preserved in freezing.
Removal of Microcystins from an Aqueous Cells Extract of some toxic Cyanobacterial species by using activated carbon
Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 82-97
In present study, some physical and chemical parameters are measured for the raw water of Al-Harthah drinking water station at Basrah city during July 2010. temperature was at 29ºC, pH value on alkaline side 8.3 , electrical conductivity was 1592 μmos /cm and dissolved oxygen at 6.7 mg /L , generally results showed close similarity to the Iraqi waters characteristics. At the biological side, Four species of cyanobacteria were identified in this study : Anabaena affinis, Microcystis aeruginosa , Nostoc linkia, and oscillatoria tenuis are classified as a toxic cyanobacteria in the world, two of them , M. aeruginosa and O. tenuis , were isolated in laboratory as axenic cultures and detected for producing the toxins by extracted by gel filtration and then detected by TLC technique that showed these species can producing two types of hepatotoxins called Microcystins: MC-LR and MC-YR. In addition, this paper confirm a highly efficiency of activated carbon to remove of microcystins from the aqueous extracted of present isolates by two methods, direct filtration through activated carbon and store with it for one day.