Volume 5, Issue 2, Autumn 2010, Page 118-221
Specialization, trophic breadth and diet overlap of thirteen small marine fish species from Shatt Al-Basrah Canal, Southern Iraq
Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 118-130
Specialization, trophic breadth and diet overlap of thirteen marine fish species from Shatt Al-Basrah Canal had been studied from July 2008 to June 2009. Data obtained revealed that seven species (Johnius belangerii, Platycephalus indicus, Silago arabica, Silago sihama, Thrysa hamiltoni, Thrysa mystex and Nematolosa nasus) were carnivorous, three species (Acanthopagrus latus, Leiognathus bindus and Boleophtalmus dussumieri) were herbivorous and one species (Scomberoides commersonnianus) was a piscivorous. Data obtained also revealed that six species were high specialized feeders (P. indicus, J. belangerii, B. dussumieri, T. hamiltoni, S. commersonnianus, A. latus) having breadth range 0-0.25, five species were low specialized feeders (T. mystex, N. Nasus, S. Sihama, Liza subviridis, Liza kulengeri) having breadth range 0.26-0.49 and two species were generalized feeders (S. arabica, L. bindus) having breadth range 0.50-1.00. The Morisita indexes of feeding overlap showed high overlap (0.97) between L. subviridis and B. dussumieri, medium overlap (0.65, 0.60) between J. belangeri, P. indicus and between J. belangerii, T. hamiltoni respectively, low overlap (0.10-0.49) for 25 occasion (32%), very low overlap (less than 0.10) for 38 occasion (48.7%) and thirteen occasions (15.4%) of having any feeding overlaps.
Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 131-140
Many specimens of both Pristina proboscidea Baddard, 1896 and P. aequiseta Bourne, 1891 , were collected from shallow water beside shatt Al-Arab River in Al-Garma village in Basrah governorate . Morphological characteristics were studied . The first important of these characteristics is the absence of elongated hair setae in Pristina proboscidea and the presence of giant ventral setae in the fourth segment of P. aequiseta . This is the first record of these two species of oligochaeta , Naididae in Iraq.
Growth response of Cyanobacterium: Chroococcus sp. To copper (Cu+2) and Nickel (Ni+2) ions, singly and in dual combination
Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 141-152
A cyanobacteria strain Chroococcus sp. was isolated from moist land (Abo Al-Khasib) in Basrah city purified and exposured to different concentrations (3, 5 and 10ppm) of Copper(Cu+2) and Nickel (Ni+2) ions as singly and in dual combinations.
Chlorophyll-A was extracted at different exposure periods (0, 1, 2, 3 and 4) weeks as indicat the growth response.
Results showed that growth response of cyanobacterium Chroococcus sp. was depending on the ions concentration and the exposure periods the effect of Nickel ions on growth response of Chroococcus sp. isolate better than Copper ion expertly in 1st week exposure while the antagonistic (increasing of growth) effect was appeared at most treatments in dual compaction and synergestic (decreasing of growth) effect in some, the synergistic effect of dual compaction in increasing of Copper ion concentration compared with Nickel ion also, the antagonistic effect was appeared at most treatment in dual combinations. Synergestic or antagonistic effect was depending on the concentration of each ion and the exposure periods
Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 153-169
Vertical profile from (surface to 21 meters) of Derbendikhan reservoir were focused for 4 sites (Zimkan, Tanjero, Arawan and Qashtee) and 7 days(1stto 7th March 2010).Daily water samples were analyzed in every meter depth for parameters of (Air &Water Temperatures, pH, EC, DO, Turbidity, PO4, NO2, NO3, and Chlorophyll a) Results showed that there were a significant differences for different parameters among sites under study.
From the direct measurement in the field during the sampling periods at each site, air temperature was ranged between (17.8 - 19.0 Cº ) for sites 2 and 3 as a minimum and maximum respectively and there was a significant differences between sites 2&3 as compare with other sites this may be due to the location, elevation and altitude. While the water temperature was ranged from (13.6 -15.5 Cº) at sites 4&2 respectively ,in fact this site is more open with motorboats movement in addition to the discharge of water from the dam. Statistical analysis shows that surface water temperature was significantly differ from the depths(p< 0.5) for sites 1, 2, & 3 this may be due to many environmental factors such as elevation, current velocity, water depth, bottom materials exposure to direct sun light and degree of shading or vegetation cover, evapotranspiration and wind speed.
pH was on alkaline sides of the neutrality (8.2-8.3) for studied sites and the significant differences (p< 0.5) was between sites 1, 2 with 3, 4. while for the differences in depth, EC of the studied sites and different depths revealed that there was no significant differences in the water column, because EC is indirectly depend on the climate, temperature, soil erosion, geological formation and directly on ion content. some parameters were decreased with increasing depth such as DO were the mean concentration was about 17 mg l-1 in the surface for most of sites, but this value was dropped to about less than 10 mg l-1, mean concentration of DO in site 1 was decreased from 3 m down to the reservoir, because it contain sewage water come from Sulaimani city.
Generally, results of Turbidity in site 2 was ranged from (5.67 – 12.05) NTU in both sites 3&4. Mean PO4 concentration of the studied sites were ranged from (7.11-14.79 )µg at-P l-1 in sites 3&1 in respective. NO2 was ranged from (31.78 -93.24) µg at-N l- at sites 1&2 with the significant differences among studied sites(p< 0.5), generally, the higher concentration was occurred in site 2., NO3 was ranged from (82.06-185.04µg at-N l-) for sites 4&2, recorded values for chlorophyll a were (11.12µg at -ch-a l l-) in site 1 and (78.52µg at -ch-a. l l-) in site 2, and both sites of 1, 2 are significantly differ from other sites.
Turbidity, PO4, NO2, NO3, and chlorophyll a with different depths revealed that there were no significant differences of the water column
Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 170-176
Five specimens of cobitides individuals were collected from Huweza marsh, southern Iraq during July and August 2007. Morphometric and merestic characteristics were measured. Dorsal fin unbranched rays 2, branched rays 6 - 7, anal fin unbranched rays 2, branched rays 5 - 6, caudal fin branched rays 16. A long the mid-flank there was dark brown and obvious spots. The samples were classified as Cobitis linea, our record is the first to this species in Huweza marsh
Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 177-196
Ecological survey of six sites in three main restored marshes (Huwaiza, Chebaish and East Hammar) was carried out during 2006 and 2007 to study the re-establishment and distribution of aquatic macrophytes. A total of 44 species were recorded, only 1 exotic (Hydrilla verticillata) was found in all three marshes after inundation. Ricciocarpus natans (Bryophytes) was new record in Chebaish marsh, while Cyperus aucheri, Torulinium odoratum , badderwort (Utricularia australis) and saw grass (Cladium mariscus) were observed in Huwaiza marsh for the first time in this study. The highest number of aquatic plants was registered in Huwaiza marsh (35) in comparison with Chebaish (27) and E.Hammar marsh (24). The present study showed that the aquatic macrophyte species restoration percentage were 97.22%, 61.36% and 63.15% in Huwaiza, Chebaish and E.Hammar marsh respectively
Seasonal and reagional variatitions of hydrocarbon concentrations and origin of n-alkanes in sediments of Iraq Southern marshes
Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 197-206
For the period Jan.(2006)toFeb(2007) during(14)months,sediment samples were collected from different sites of Iraq southern marsh land;Al-Bargah,Al-Hammar and Al-Gebayesh station.Analysis were done for the determination of total hydrocarbon concentrations using the spectroflurometric method by comparing samples with astandard solution of Iraq crude oil.Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Concentrations(TPH) indicated that there were regional and seasonal variations.(TPH) ranged from (0.458) µg/g dry weight in Autmn season at Al-Hammr station to (1.250)µg/g dry weight at Al-Gebayesh station during winter(2006).Gaschromatography also used to identify the concentration and origin of n-alkanes in sediment samples,total n-alkanes ranged between(6.53) µg/g dry weight at Al-Hammar station during summer season to (31.46) µg/g dry weight at Al-Gebayesh station during winter (2006).Studying Pristan ,Phytan and Carbon Prefrence Index (CPI) indicated the biogenic source of hydrocarbone compounds.
Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 207-221
Eight species of fungi occurring on different plant debris submerged in brackish water habitats collected from various locations, southern Iraq were described and illustrated. These inclued five species of ascomycota and three species of mitosporic fungi. The reported species are new records for the Iraqi mycobiota