ISSN: 1816-9848

Volume 5, Issue 1

Volume 5, Issue 1, Spring 2010, Page 1-117


The effect of vegetation on the stream bank erotion of Shatt Al-Arab River, South Iraq

J.C.H. AL; Bahili; Maliki and A.A.Alrubaye; N.K.M. AL

Marsh Bulletin, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 1-13

Khora, Hamdan and Abu-Flus have been selected to determine the root length density on Shatt Al-Arab River bank . The types of vegetation are murran (Paniam repens ), bardi (Typha domingensis)and khwesa (Vallisneria spiralis) .Natural moisture content, weight density , plasticity index, shrinkage limit , grain size distribution and Maximum Shear resistance were determined . Besides the erodibility coefficient and erosion rate, the shear stress of flow on the bank toe and safety factor of the bank stability were calculated for the period between October 2007 to December 2008.
The results showed that there are noticeable variations in geotechnical properties between the sites that chosen for this study . Also, this study proved that the root length density values in the bank toe are 0.049-0319 cm.cm-3 , 0.147-0.516 cm.cm-3 and 0.221-0.688 cm.cm-3 for murran , bardi and khwesa plants respectively. The values of maximum shear resistance caused by the roots are 9.0 - 20.0 Pa , 14.0 - 29.0 Pa and 20.0 -37.0 Pa in soil vegetated by murran , bardi and khwesa plants respectably ,while this values in the unvegetated soils was 4.2 Pa , 9.0 Pa and 8.0 Pa in site 1, site 2 and site 3 respectively.The safety factor of soil reached up to 1.29 , 1.67 and 1.89 in soils that vegetated by murran , bardi and khwesa plants respectively, while these values in all of unvegetated soil were below the 1.00 unite.
The results of this study have concluded that the density and distribution of roots within a River bank play an important role in River bank erosion and stability, and the shear resistance of cohesive soils that vegetated by plants can not be a unique criterion for erodibility estimation, also the cohesion that measured by Coulomb equation in vegetated soils is not represented the true cohesion of soil, but it is apparent (true cohesion combined with additional cohesion by roots ).

Mycobiota of surface sediments in marshes of Southern Iraq

S.K. Abdullaha; M.N. Aldossarib and F.J. Al-Imarac

Marsh Bulletin, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 14-26

Twenty sediment samples were taken from ten sites in the southern marshes of Iraq and analyzed for the presence of fungi by three isolation methods. The dilution technique yielded the highest number of genera identified (32 genera). Phenol and acetic acid treated sediments yielded 17 and 16 genera respectively. Phenol treatment method was more selective for ascomycetous fungi yielded the isolation of 12 genera.Sixty seven species assigned to thirty seven genera in addition to sterile mycelia were identified. The isolates were assigned to 43 mitosporic fungi, 20 species of ascomycetes and 4 species of zygomycetes. The most frequent species were in decreasing order: Aspergillus terreus, A.niger, Acremonium kiliense, Sterile mycelia, Graphium putredinis, Preussia dispersa, A. fumigatus, Dichotomomyces ceipii and Rhizopus sp., our findings were compared with those from similar survey on mycobiota in sediments in several parts of the world.

First record of three species of trematodes of the genus Clinostomum Leidy, 1856 ( Digenea: Clinostomidae) parasitic in piscivorous birds from East Al-Hammar Marsh, South of Iraq

N.K. Al-Salim and A.H. Ali

Marsh Bulletin, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 27-42

Three species of trematodes, genus Clinostomum Leidy, 1856 were described from three different species of piscivorous birds (viz. C. complanatum Leidy, 1856 from grey heron Ardea cinerea and from small white Bittern Ardeola ralloides,
C. dasi Bhalerao, 1942 from Bittern Botaurus stellaris and Clinostomum sp. from each of A. cinerea and A. ralloides). Birds were captured from East Al-Hammar marsh, south of Iraq during December-February 2004 and December 2005. The genus Clinostomum and its three species were recorded and described as adult for the first time in Iraq.

Distribution and source of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surficial sediment from Shatt Al-Hilla River, IRAQ

M.M.S. Al-Taee

Marsh Bulletin, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 43-55

The presence of organic pollutant in aquatic systems poses a serious threat to environmental health. Surface sediment collected from Shatt Al-Hilla (branch of Euphrates River, a few kilometers southern Al-Musayab town)/Iraq, in 1995 for studying levels, distribution and origin of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs). The concentration of naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, (Benz(a) anthracene + Chrysene) and Benzo(b) fluoranthene were measured in five stations. The total of these compounds ΣPAHs were ranged from 26.668 to 900.042 ng/g (dry weight). There were significant differences between various sites of the study area. The highest is in the area adjacent to high way traffic across the river and all studied PAHs resulted from pyrogenic and petrogenic origin

A Provisional Checklist of the Birds of Iraq RF Porter, M Salim, K Ararat and O Fadhel on behalf of Nature Iraq

Richard Porter; Korsh Ararat; Omar Fadhil Abdulrahman; Mudhafar Salim

Marsh Bulletin, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 56-95

This is a provisional checklist of the birds recorded in Iraq up to December 2009. It is based on an extensive review of the ornithological literature and the results of five years of surveys throughout the country by Nature Iraq, an Iraqi non-governmental, environmental organization, working in cooperation with the Iraqi Ministry of Environment. During the last century many of the ornithological advances were made by non-Iraqis visiting the country for relatively short periods. The main exception to this was Bashir Allouse, whose classics Avifauna of Iraq was published in 1953 and Birds of Iraq in Arabic in 1963. From the late 1970s few bird surveys were made until Nature Iraq started its Key Biodiversity Areas (KBA) programme in 2005 with the goal of identifying those sites that are important in Iraq for their biological diversity.
Originally based upon the criteria for Important Bird Areas (IBA) developed by BirdLife International (Evans 1994) the KBA project has been expanded to survey a wide range of biodiversity, but its core strength has focused on birds. These systematic surveys, the first of their kind in Iraq, have been conducted in summer and winter in three main regions of the country: the Mesopotamian Marshlands and coastal habitats of southern Iraq (2005-2009), the lakes, steppes, the woodlands and mountains of Kurdistan (2007-2009), and desert region of central and western Iraq (2009)
The provisional checklist uses the taxonomic order, English names and scientific names now adopted by the Ornithological Society of the Middle East (see www.osme.org) and the forthcoming Birds of the Middle East (Porter and Aspinall, in prep). The sources for the preparation of the Iraq status are given under ‘Primary reference source and notes’.
Little attempt has been made at this stage to include subspecies, though this will be an important action for future revisions. Furthermore with ever-evolving taxonomy we have been careful not to call this a species checklist. Whilst essentially that is what it is we are aware that it includes taxa where the subspecies of a ‘parent species’ has been recorded (e.g. Eastern Greylag Goose and Baltic Gull) or where there is continuing discussion on the merits of giving a taxa full species status (e.g. Turkestan and Daurian Shrike or Hooded Crow and Mesopotamian Crow). Therefore this provisional checklist should not be regarded as a taxonomic authority.
Importantly, for completeness, two appendices are included with information on species that have not been included in the checklist. Appendix A lists species that have been cited in the ornithological literature for Iraq but are no longer considered acceptable without substantiation. Appendix B includes species that have been mentioned in publications but for which we have been unable to find any evidence of their origin; we have therefore concluded that they have probably been reported erroneously

The effect of chlorpyriphos pesticides on the biochemical contents in the tissues of fresh water snail Bellamya bengalensis (LAMARCK)

Murtada D. Naser b and Kadhmia W. Al-Gheezyc; Amaal G. Yassera

Marsh Bulletin, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 96-102

The extensive use of pesticides on crops and overfishing illegally by fisherman in recent years in the south of Iraq, causing serious problems on non-target organisms leading to a number of pathological and disturbed biochemical alterations. Effect of chlorpyriphos pesticides on glycogen, lipid and protein contents of the viscera, mantle and foot at the end of 48 h and 96h of LC50 of the sub-lethal concentration (0.01, 0.06 ) mg / l, on the freshwater snail Bellamya bengalensis was studied. Significant differences were noticed at the different tissues contents to the both concentrations at 24h and 96h.

Toxicity of aromatic hydrocarbons to several species of molluscs from Shatt Al-Arab river

H.T. Al; Saadb; and A.H.Y. Al; W.A. Farida; Adhubc

Marsh Bulletin, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 103-117

The present study includes toxicity experiments carried out under laboratory conditions for 24- and 48- hours periods by using renewal toxicity test system to determine the comparative toxicities of three types of aromatic hydrocarbons{hydroxylated aromatic hydrocarbon (phenol and β–naphthol), azaarenes (quinoline and acridine) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene and phenanthrene)} to several species of molluscs found in Shatt Al–Arab river. These species of molluscs are snails,Lymnaea auricularia,Theodoxus jordani,Physa acuta,Melanopsis nodosa,and Melanoides tuberculata and bivalves,Corbicula fluminea and Corbicula fluminalis. The toxicity experiments show that the more toxic aromatic compounds to species of molluscs is phenanthrene and the less toxic is quinoline. In each of these types of aromatics,the compound with the greater number of aromatic rings always exert a greater toxicity to species of molluscs.
The order of sensitivity of molluscs tested to aromatic hydrocarbons are as follows : L. auricularia> P. acuta > M. nodosa > T. jordani > M. tuberculata > C. fluminalis > C. fluminea . The overall acute effects of hydrocarbons on the species of molluscs tested are abnormal activities,narcosis and anesthesia,the loss of ability to react to the external cue,rapture the tissues and die.