Volume 4, Issue 1, Spring 2009, Page 1-97
Comparative toxicities of crude oil and refined oil products to several species of molluscs from Shatt Al-Arab river
Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 1-20
The present study includes toxicity experiments carried out under laboratory conditions for 24 - and 48 - hours periods by using renewal toxicity test system to determine the comparative toxicities of crude oil ( Basrah regular crude oil ) and refined oil products ( diesel oil , gas oil , gasoline , grease oil , kerosene , motor oil , paraffin wax and automatic transmission oil ) to several species of molluscs collected from Shatt Al – Arab river
. These species of molluscs are snails , Lymnaea auricularia , Theodoxus jordani , Physa acuta , Melanopsis nodosa , and Melanoides tuberculata , and bivalves , Corbicula fluminea and Corbicula fluminalis . The toxicity experiments showed that the different types of oils vary widely in their toxicities to the species tested . The gasoline is clearly the most toxic fraction , while Kerosene is the next most toxic fraction , and is slightly less toxic than Basrah regular crude oil .The remaining fractions diesel oil and gas oil are relatively less toxic to the species tested , while the grease oil is almost non – toxic . Paraffin wax is non – toxic to all species , while the motor oil and automatic transmission oil are toxic to different species in varying degrees . There are some variation in the pattern of recovery rates of each species of snails from exposure to the oils .
The order of sensitivity of molluscs species tested were : L . auricularia > P . acuta > M . nodosa > T . jordani > M . tuberculata > C . fluminalis > C . fluminea . The overall acute effects of hydrocarbons on the species of molluscs tested are abnormal activities , narcosis and anesthesia , the loss of ability to react to the external cue , rapture the tissues and die .
Specialization, competition and diet overlap of fish assemblages in the recently restored southern Iraqi marshes
Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 21-35
Trophic competition,feeding specialization and diet overlap of fishes had been studied in three restored marshes( Al-Huweyza, Suq Al-Shuyoak and East Al-Hammar). Data obtained revealed that most of species studied were specialized and few were generalized ,depend on the percentage of environmental restoration in each of the three marshes. Four pairs of trophic competition showed positive cases( Carassius auratus, Barbus luteus, Cyprinus carpio; Barbus xanthopterus, Acanthobrama marmid ; Alburnus mossulensis, Aspius vora and Silurus striostegus)
Three trophic groups of multi species ( carnivorous, omnivorous and herbivorous) and two single species trophic groups(detritovorous and benthivorous) were reached.
It seemed that fish species in the restored marshes alter their diets than previously known including native and alien . C.auratus alter its food habits Other species including C. carpio become omnivorous., A.vorax and S.
striostegus become pscivorous species.
Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 36-50
Background: Maternal mortality is suffering a longstanding ignorance in most of the developing countries including Iraq which lies with countries that have poor registration systems. In addition, maternal mortality is especially important since the WHO have put the reduction of MMR as one of the six health related MDGs adopted by United Nations and declared in 2000.
Methods: The principal method was the sisterhood method which is especially recommended for the situation of Iraq. It involved household visits and made successful interviews with 3683 females in the reproductive age. The questionnaire used was a bit modified from the original survey questions invented for this approach. Results: The estimated maternal mortality ratio of 92/100 000 live births which looks reasonable if compared to the national estimates made by the Iraqi Ministry of Health, Ministry of Planning and other organizations in the relevant time period.
Conclusion: The current estimate of maternal mortality in marshes of 92 per 100000 live births is reasonable within national context. The present study revealed a tendency for maternal mortality to have declined over
years. Most of the causes of female mortality and maternal mortality are preventable
Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 51-59
Persistence of N- ( 3,4 – dichlorophenyl ) propanamide ( propanil ) 3,4 – dichloroaniline ( DCA) has been studied in drainage water canals and soil , following propanil application in rice fields .
Propanil was detected up to 16 weeks after application. However (5) metabolites of propanil were detected
in drainage water canal
Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 60-74
This study is an attempt at evaluating the proper theoretical statistical distribution of extreme monthly rainfall in Mosul. That is why data for the period (1923-1958) have been made use of to have all relevant information about sets of the highest monthly rainfall then. The frequency analyses and all needed statistical tests were done using the final version 1.1 of HYFRAN Software that operate under windows environment. The following Five distributions are used: Normal, Pearson Type III, Lognormal, 3-parameter lognormal and Gumbal. We arrived at the estimation of the theoretical distribution by using maximum likelihood method. The adequacy test is carried out by applying the chi-square test. All five distributions have been found to be suitable
for representing of extreme monthly rainfall in the area under investigation
Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 75-84
The determination of heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Co, Mn and Ni) in 4 locations of sediments of north zone Basrah were achieved by means of Atomic Absorption spectroscopy were determined in sediments samples . The results showed that the higher concentrations of Cu were (14.42 µg/gm)at station (4), Cd (19.596 µg /gm) at Station (1) , Co (24.309 µg/gm) at station (2) , Mn(111.577 µg/gm) at station (1) , and Ni (207.319µg/gm) at station (2) . The sediment pollution with heavy metals thought to be due to different sources such as urban wastes , industrial of different sources such as urban wastes , industrial effluents , land washout and boats
A study of levels of trace elements in water and soil of Hamadan Canal and Its Effect on leaves and fruits of Braim and Hillawi Cultivars of date palms
Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 85-97
This work in during :the study of the quality of Shatt Al-Arab water in two locations in Hamadan Canl and the investigation of the effect of this water on two cultivars of date palms planted on the shores of the river
.The following parameters were specified for investigation :pH; Electric conductivity(EC);Total dissolved solids (TDS); and concentrations of Cl,Ca,Fe,Cd ions. The results revealed that Shatt-Al-Arab water in the two locations is saline .It is also shown that the pH values fall within the normal limits as stated by FAO(International organization of Food and Agriculture).The T.D.S were within the permitted limits; Cl was in its highest value in station 2 in summer and in its lowest value in station 1 in winter. Ca and Fe were like Cl in their behaviour whereas Cd was in its highest value in station 1 in winter and in its lowest value in station 1 in summer .The obtained values in Summer ,were higher then those obtained in Winter concerning Cl,Ca,Fe and Cd in the Soil of both stations 1 and 2.
The results also revealed significant variation among the cultivars ,the seasons and the stations of the study, Al-Hillawi cultivars and winter gave the highest value concerning Fe and Cd in the leaves , station 1 from Cd and station 2 respectively. The same can be said about overlaps which had significant variation in values .
As far as the fruits are concerned ,the highest value was in station 1 from Fe,Cd and the cultivar of date did not have any significant effect .It was also revealed ,in the study ,that there was significant effect on the
overlaps on the content of the trace elements in the fruits