ISSN: 1816-9848

Volume 3, Issue 2

Volume 3, Issue 2, Autumn 2008, Page 95-191


Thermodynamic parameters of inorganic Pyrophosphatase in marshland south of Iraq

A.M.S. Al-Ansari; M.A. Abdulkareem and

Marsh Bulletin, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 95-103

Marsh land ( south of Iraq ) is of great international interest at present time. Studying some microbial properties including enzyme activities , can be useful as indicator of soil quality of this area. General conclusion of enzyme reaction in soil can be reached from the thermodynamic parameters of the enzyme – soil system. Hence , this experiment was conducted to study thermodynamic parameters ( Q10 , Ea , ΔHa , ΔSa and ΔGa ) for inorganic pyrophosphatase enzyme in this soil as compared with their counter parts of other soils of south of Iraq ( Al-Zubair and Abul-Khasib soils ). Results indicated that Q10 and ΔGa values of marsh land did not significantly differs from other soils under study with average values of about 1.11 and 14.55 KJmol -1 ,
respectively. Ea values of marsh land , Al-Zubair and Abul-Khasib soil were 8.72 , 7.47 and 9.53 KJmol -1 ,

respectively. ΔSa values for marsh land soil

(–10.49 J deg -1 mol -1 ) were lower than those of Abul-Khasib ( –7.85 J deg -1 mol -1) but higher than those of Al- Zubair (–14.55J deg -1 mol -1 ).
ΔHa values were in order of Abul-Khasib ( 12.08 KJmol -1 ) > marsh land ( 11.27 KJmol -1 ) > Al-Zubair

soil ( 10.02 KJmol -1 )

Variation in concentrations of some elements in leaves and fruits of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) and soil irrigated with polluted water from Abu Al-Khaseeb River, Southern Iraq

A.A. Mahmooda; A.A. Abbasb and K.F. Abbas; F.J. M. Al-Imaraha

Marsh Bulletin, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 104-113

During the cultivation period, growth and ripeness of Guava (Psidium guajava) plant in the fields of Abu Al-Khasseb, Southern Iraq were studied for estimation of chemical elements contents, Cd, Co, Cu , Fe, Mn and Zn in leaves and fruits of Guava irrigated by water from Abu Al-Khaseeb river polluted by crude oil spilled in Shatt Al-Arab River. Two sites were selected, Bab Debagh and Abu Mugherah. The study was conducted throughout two seasons, for the periods,Oct.2003-March 2004 and March 2004–August 2004. The first season is characterized by bud blooming and plants were irrigated with rain water, while the second season is characterized by growth of leaves and buds, bloom and ripeness, water used in this stage for irrigation was from Abu Al-Khaseeb River. Moreover a clear model was used during these seasons as a control irrigated with tab water. Some chemical elements were estimated by adopting the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry in the leaves and fruits of Guava plant. Highest differences in the concentrations of studied elements were recorded in leaves and fruits before and after ripeness during the first season and for both sites. While concentrations were increased for all studied elements except Cd in leaves after fruit ripeness in both sites, and all elements except Cd, Fe and Mg in fruits after ripeness in Bab Debagh site, while elements Cd, Cu and Mg decreased with no change in Co and Fe and increase in Zn only in fruits after ripeness for Abu Mugherah site. Guava fruit characterized by diameter, length in cm and weight in gm as 12.6, 5.4 and 30.36 respectively for Bab Debagh site and 15.5, 7.2 and 45.3 respectively for Abu Mugherah site during the first season. For the second season, elements showed decrease in leaves except Co after ripeness of fruits and increased in fruits except Co and Mn with no effect for Cd in Bab Debagh site and decreased in elements except Cd with no effect for Fe in leaves while in fruits, elements were decreased except an increase of Zn with no effect for Cd and Cu. Fruits characterized as 17.7, 8.1 and 59.8 respectively in Bab Debagh site and 19, 9.6 and 83.8 respectively in Abu Mugherah site. Statistical analysis showed non significant differences for Cd and Cu between leaves and fruits for both study sites. Significant differences were recorded for Co and Mn between leaves and fruits, while for Fe significant differences were recorded between leaves and fruits for Bab Debagh only, and for Zn there were significant differences between leaves before ripeness compared with after ripeness and both significantly different from fruits whether before or after ripeness. During the second period of study , Co didn't record any significant differences, but Cu and Fe reported significant differences between leaves before and after ripeness from fruits after ripeness, while Fe and Mn didn't show any significant differences for leaves before and after ripeness from fruits before and after ripeness. It is concluded that concentrations of chemical elements showed
alteration levels in leaves and fruits of Guava plant during the cultivation period.

The Effect of Sesarma boulengeri(Calman) Crab Burrows on Surrounding Pore Water Chemistry in the Shatt Al-Arab NW Arabian Gulf

H.A. Kadhim

Marsh Bulletin, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 114-124

The result of the present study has shown that presence of chemical elements concentration in the pore water surrounding the crab burrow depends on the distance from or depth of the burrow. After analyzing the samples in the laboratory, the results have demonstrated that the concentration of ammonium and phosphate decreases as we move away from the burrows edge, and there is also a significant difference with regard to the ammonium and phosphate concentrations. With respect to phosphate, there is no important significant difference, but the concentration of sulfide has increased with the distance from the burrow edge. Its highest concentration is at a distance of 12cm, such that there is a noticeable difference between the various samples. But there no change in the proportion of salinity and redox with the distance or depth from the burrow edge. The results have, also, that the crab burrows affect the pore water present in the sediments surrounding the burrows, to a distance that approaches 12 cm from the burrows opening . There, the activity of the crab burrows has
increased the heterogeneity of the sediments in the area of study.

Rainfall-Runoff modeling by using M5 model trees technique: an example of Tigris catchment area in Baghdad, Middle of Iraq

A.M. Atiaaa and H.B. Ghalib

Marsh Bulletin, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 125-135

This paper investigates the applicability of the M5 model trees technique to emulate rainfall-runoff transformation of Tigris catchment area in Baghdad city, Middle of Iraq. For building M5 model, a free of charge open –leading machine learning and data mining weka software is used. Four models are build firstly to study the interdependency among the input variables and to select the effective variables. The applicability of this technique is studied by predicting runoff (discharge) of Tigris River one and two months ahead. The results show the high accuracy of the M5 technique to identify low values and some of high values of flow with very high accuracy, but most of the high flows were underestimated. M5 model tree and other data-driven models could be used alone or corporation with physically-based models such as HEC-HMS to manage water resources
of Iraq after a detailed monitor hydrological programming surveys are employed

Effect of some heavy metals ions on the chlorophyll a pigment of Nostoc linkia and Hapalosiphon aureus

M.M. Al-Hejuje

Marsh Bulletin, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 136-146

Two Cyanophyt A species : Nostoc linkia and Hapalosiphon aureus were exposed to some heavy metals ions {silver (Ag1+) , cobalt ( Co2+) and lead (Pb2+) } in different concentrations (1 , 5 and 10) mg/l to study their effects on the growth ( i.e. Chlorophyll A ) of these species. Chlorophyll A pigment was extracted from these species after different exposure periods (0 , 1 , 2 , 3 and 4 ) weeks for using as physiological parameter in the toxicological studies with Cyanophyta.
Results showed that the effect of heavy metals has not significant differences (p> 0.05) between these two algal species, the effect was
Significantly (p< 0.05) depended on the metal type and its concentration in the growth medium so as the exposure periods, the effect of heavy metals on the growth and pigment of these two species was in the
following sequences:- Ag > Co > Pb

The Suitability and Determining Factors of Groundwater Origin in Safwan –Al Zubair Area, South of Iraq.

A.H. Al Aboodi; M.A. Al Tai; A. M. Al Kadhimi

Marsh Bulletin, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 147-161

The study of groundwater quality involves a determination of the various constituents occurring in this groundwater and their relationships to the use of this groundwater. So in order to evaluate the groundwater quality in the study area, twenty five groundwater samples are taken from twenty five wells distributed over the Safwan-Al Zubair area. The results indicate that the groundwater in the studied region is unsuitable for human drinking and almost all the groundwater here is not suitable for poultry and horses also, but it is suitable for beef cattle and sheep. The yield of vegetable crops such as Tomato, Lettuce and Onion may be reducing to 25 % or more due to high salinity in the groundwater. After studying the other factors which have affecting the suitability of groundwater for agriculture purposes such as sodium absorption ratio, Na %, bicarbonates and carbonates. The results also show that this groundwater is suitable for agriculture purposes despite the high salinity of this water. The hydrochemical ratios (rNa/rCl),(r(Na-Cl)/rSO4) and (rSO4/rCl) are used to determinate the origin of this groundwater. After comparing the values of these factors obtained in the studied area with the standard values, it appears that the origin of groundwater is divided into two types, marine and meteoric origin, and also it
shows that it changes gradually from deep groundwater of marine origin to shallow one of meteoric origin

Survey of migratory ducks in West Hammar marsh

J.M. Abed

Marsh Bulletin, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 162-170

Survey of migratory ducks was conducted during winter 2005/2006 and 2006/2007 season in West Hammar marsh. The ducks surveyed belonged to Anatidae family and divided to eight surface – feeding ducks species (mallard; gadwall; teal; gargany; wigeon; pintail; shoveler and marbled teal). Four species were diving ducks (tuffted duck; Pochard; ferruginous duck and red crested Pochard). One species of shelduks (Shelduck Tadorna tadorna) and one species of gees (grayleg goose Anser anser).
In first winter 2005/2006 twelve species of ducks were recorded while in the second winter 2006/2007 eleven species were detected. During the two successive winters of survey indicates existence 14 species of Anseriformes. This study recorded two species not recorded in the previous survey.
Wigeon (Anas Penelope) was appeared more abundant in the two winters, followed by gadwall (A. strepera). In general the number of birds individuals recorded in winter 2006/2007 was less than that recovered in winter
2005/2006.

Zooplankton of Basrah district, Southern Iraq

Sh.G. Ajeel; S.D. Salman; and M.H. Ali

Marsh Bulletin, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 171-191

Monthly samples were collected from seven stations at Basrah city by a plankton net (0.090 mm mesh- size and 40 cm mouth aperture) from November 1995 to December 1996 at stations 3, 4, 7 (St.3 is a small pool at the university campus, Garmat-Ali ; St.4 Al-Maqal creek, a small creek connected to Shatt Al-Arab River ; St.7 Abdulyan creek in Abi-Al-Khasib, South of Basrah) and from December 1995 to May 1996 at station 5 and from June 1996 to May 1997 at stations 1, 2, 6. The population density of zooplankton ranged between 110 ind/m3 during August 1996 at sta. 1 to 1769250 ind/m3 during April 1996 at sta. 5. Copepoda constitute 36.8 % of the total zooplankton. The second important group was Rotifera (33.7 %), then Ostracoda (10.7 %), whereas Cladocera came fourth (8.8 %) followed by the cirripede larvae (4 %). Biomass of zooplankton estimated as wet weight, it ranged from 0.5 mg/m3 during June 1997 at sta. 6 to 67241 mg/m3 during March 1996 at sta. 5. The biomass in terms of dry weight, ranged from 1.028 mg/m3 during July 1996 at sta. 4 to 21929 mg/m3 during March 1996 at sta. 5 and in terms of displacement volume and standing crop, the biomass ranged between 0.028 ml/m3 and 1.820 mg C/ m3 during June 1996 at sta. 4 and 88.6 ml/ m3 and 5757 mg C/ m3 during April 1996 at sta. 5, respectively.