Volume 3, Issue 1, Spring 2008, Page 1-94
Isolation and purification of Hepatotoxin (Microcystin-LR) from some Blue –green algae of sweage water in Basrah
Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 1-16
The present study involved isolation, identification and purification of four species of Cyanobacteria
Microcystis aeruginosa Kuetz , Microcystis flos-aque (Wittr.)Kirchner , Hapalosiphon Welwitschii (West and West ), Calothrix parietina (Thnret.) from Basrah region at AL-Ashar and AL- Khandaq canals that have been recorded for the first time in Iraq in this habitat .The extracted species testing for its ability to produced toxins
particularly hepatotoxins (Microcystin–LR). This toxin was diagnosed depending on chemical features by using the thin layer chromatography technique (TLC). Toxic study showed that the toxin proceed by the algae has an (Rf) value closely to the standard hepatotoxin (Microcystin – LR) (0. 58). However, the value for the purified toxin was (0.54-0.56). The Ultraviolet spectrum of the purified toxin showed two absorption peaks ; the first appears at (240-243) nm and the other at (275-280) nm these two peaks are so close to the absorption peaks of the standard toxins ( Microcystin-LR), namely (239) nm for the first peak and (275) nm for the other. Whereas Infrared spectrum has shown that the purified toxin from the four species of toxic algae contains most of the active groups composing the structure of Hepatotoxins ( Microcystin-LR ) .
By using the HPLC technique, the purified test has shown that the toxins have a retention time ranging between (3.920-4.108) minutes which is quite close to the retention time of the standard hepatotoxins Microcystin-LR (4.037) minutes. The results revealed that the species H. Welwitschii contains the highest concentration of hepatotoxin Microcystin – LR (44.415) μg/ml among the other species. The Bioassay tests for two species extracts of toxic algae have shown that the LD50 was within the toxic range of algae toxicity which reached (740) mg dry cells/kg mice for H.Welweitschii and (1540) mg dry cells/Kg mice for C. parietina, while the concentrations (20 and 50) mg dry cells/ml for all toxic species killed half numbers or more of the Artemia salina larvae after 24 hours
Species Composition and Ecological indices of Fishes in the restored marshes of Southern Mesopotamia
Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 17-31
Fish species composition and ecological indices were monitored in three restored southern marshes(Suq Al-Shuyukh, Al- Huwayzah and East Hammar ),during the period June 2004 to July 2005. 18 freshwater and seven marine species were collected in total from Al- Huwayza, Suq Al-Shuyuakh and East Hammar. The fish composition of each marsh exhibit certain differences . In Al- Huwayzah the fish assemblage dominated by native species formed of 70.6 % . In Suq Al-Shuyukh 64.7% ,in East Hammar consisted of 47.8%.The highest alien and marine constituents was in Al- Huwayzah and East Hammar 29.4% and 30.4%respectively. The dominant species in the three monitored marshes was Liza abu and in the second rank was Carassius carassius.
Diversity and Richness were higher in East Hammar than other marshes, Evenness generally the same in all marshes. Higher value of Similarity between Suq Al- Shuyukh and East Hammar 73.9%, between Al- Huwazah and Suq Al- Shuyukh 70%, in comparison with 68.1% between Al- Huwazah and East Hammar. The recovery index were higher in East Hammar( 71.8%), in compared with 69.5 % and 65.2 % in Suq Shuyukh and
Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 32-44
A survey on aquatic macrophytes was done during 2006 to evaluate status of East Hammar marsh after restoration including two main stations Al-Mafrag (S1) and Al-Burgah (S2). Ninteen plant species belonging to
11 families of aquatic macrophytes were recorded in East Hammar marsh, one of them considered as an exotic
species.The highest value of cover recorded for Ceratophyllum demersum as submerged 57.48% and Schoenoplectus litoralis as emerged 49.46%. The most frequent species in the Hammar marsh was Ceratophyllum demersum (82.5%).The value of biodiversity was 1.96 and evenness was 0.74 while richness was
2.66 in S1. Phragmites australis recorded the highest value of biomass in Summer for emergent aquatic macrophytes, while Ceratophyllum demersum recorded highest values of biomass comparing with other
Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 45-56
The groundwater quality is almost equal to its quantity. Determination of its chemical, physical, and bacterial characteristics is very important for municipal, Commercial, industrial, and domestic water supplies. Twenty five different groundwater samples were taken from twenty five wells distributed over Safwan- Zubair area in order to identify their hydrochemical properties, including its contamination by their major ions. Their TDS values range between 3810 to 9225 ppm, while their EC values lies between 4.77 and 8.95 mmhos/cm. There is a direct relationship between EC and TDS, square coefficient of correlation is 0. 9636. Plotting the values of ionic concentration on Sulin's graph appeared that the considered water source can be divided in to two types, the first one is of marine origin, and the second is meteoric water. Marine origin of groundwater indicates that the groundwater of Dibdibba Formation which was gathered through sedimentation under marine environment during Miocene age or this marine water came from a deep source, due to the existence of different pressures which caused a vertical flow of this saline water. Scholler- Sulins method is used to classify this groundwater, sulphate and chloride ions are the dominant anions. The group of sulphate contains two major families which are sulphate-sodium and sulphate-calcium, while chloride group contains also two families
including both chloride- sodium and chloride- calcium.
Concentrations of Trace Metals in Aquatic Plants and sediments of the Southern Marshes of Iraq (Al-Hawizah and Al-Hammar)
Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 57-66
The analysis of trace metals Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe in six species of aquatic plant species and sediments of Al-Hawizah and Al-Hammar marshes were investigated . It was found that the nature of the region is unpolluted with the trace metals. The ability of these plants to accumulate and eliminate trace metals in relation to their concentrations in ambient led to the observed variations in metal concentrations in plants. The results showed higher concentration of trace metals in sediment than in plants. No significant difference were observed in trace metals concentrations in aquatic plants and sediment samples for both Al-Hawizah and Al- Hammar marshes .Generally , the levels of the studied metals in plants and sediments of region were lower than
the other compared areas of the world
Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 67-80
Three marshes in southern Iraq (Huwayzah, Suq Shuyukh and East Hammar) were monitored for more than two years (June 04 till August 06). Seventy-eight species were recorded in the three marshes, 69, 60, 59 species were recorded in Huwayzah, Suq Shuyukh and East Hammar respectively, during the first year 64 species was recorded, 58, 46, 30 species in the three marshes respectively, while in the second year 74 species were recorded, 62 species were recorded in Huwayzah marsh and 53 species were recorded in Suq Shuyukh and East Hammar.
There was increment in number of birds count between the two year in the three marshes, percentage of increment where 3.51, 3.01, 4.25 respectively, Comparison of total number of waterfowls surveyed between the three marshes, Huwayzah marsh came first followed by East Hammar and Suq Shuyukh, number of birds in Huwayzah marsh was 5.30 time the number of birds in Suq Shuyukh marsh and 3.47 time the number of birds in East Hammar marsh. The restoration index for number of species was 59.5% which means there were more than
40% of water birds that did not return, and for number of individuals was 19%.
Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 81-94
Water quality of the restored marshes of southern of Iraq were assessed for twelve months. The three studied restored marshes were Huwayzah , Suq Alshuyukh and East Hammar .Six surface-water monitoring stations (two stations for every marsh). Three water bodies recognized in the monitored marshes different in their water quality parameters, depending on their major resource (Tigris ,Euphrates & Shatt Al- Arab).Nutrients in the monitored marshes were higher than historical record in contrast to phosphate .No significant differences were existed concerning other water parameters in comparison with
previous studies before the drainage and desiccation. Seasonal flacuation patterns were noticed for various water parameters.Sediments