Volume 1, Issue 2, Autumn 2006, Page 93-183
Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 93-98
The moorhen (Gallinula c.chloropus) ,Because of their diet and environment,need to be able to rid their bodies of excess salt or face dehydration, For this region ,Moorhen possess a pair of glands located just above their eyes in the low groove of the eye orbit attached to the frontal bone of the skull .Salt gland was also called supraorbital or nasal gland and their function to secrete ahyperosmotic NACL or KCL solution an important osmoregulatory organ.
Salt glands in the Moorhen have a micro-structure similar to kidney and use a system of counter current blood
flow to remove and concentrate salt ions from the blood stream, The paired ,crescent –shaped glands each contain several longitudinal lobes , each lobe contains central duct from which radiate thousands of tubules enmeshed in blood capillaries. These tiny capillaries carry blood along the tubules of the gland, which have walls just one cell thick ,The Moorhen salt gland was vascularized by several arterial branches such as the supraorbital Facial and internal ophthalmic arteries
The glands are surrounded by a capsule of connective tissue in addition some smooth muscle cells, The
secretory units consists of secretory tubules and ducts that lined by one layer of simple cuboidal epithelium that rests at basement membrane, while the ducts have many mayo epithelial cells in their walls.
Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 99-126
Iraqi southern marshes form a large triangular region bounded by three major southern cities: Nasiriyah to the west, Amarah to the northeast, and Basrah to the south. Their vast area covers 20,000 square kilometers of open water, and includes both permanent and seasonal marshes. Three major areas are the Al-Hammar, the Central, and the Al-Hawizeh Marshes form the core of the marsh land of southern Iraq. It is centered on the meeting of the great Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Such specific wetlands of the southern part of Iraq play a vital role in the maintenance of biodiversity in the Middle East, primarily because of their large size, the richness of their aquatic vegetation and their isolation from other comparable systems.
Aims of this literature review may include addressing certain key issues, such as definition and description of the general conditions of the Iraq’s southern marshes, and why should the marshes be protected? Another issue, we introduced the “Healthy Marshes Concept”, to be adopted for sustaining life and to control pollution in the marshes following the full scale restoration. Another part of this study is devoted for the discussion of how can marsh conditions be studied and monitored on a continuous way to achieve the “healthy marshes concept” issue. On the other hand, the study provides information and Internet links to the international institutions and political programs willing to participate or to address the global concern about the restoration of the Iraqi southern wetlands following the disastrous devastation of its unique ecosystem during the 1990’s period.
Finally, the literature citation, and the extensive lists of species should provide vital references for any research or a study to be conducted on wetlands, both locally or on a global scale. The “Southern Marsh Project” issue is the advice to take home from this study. It represents a call for a systematic, long term research program of monitoring all the aspects and conditions of the Iraqi Southern marshes, and probably the neighboring Countries. The program is a comprehensive, multi-vision project aims for careful restoration of the marshes after its disastrous devastation.
Comparative study of some physico-chemical characteristics for Northern Al-Hammar marsh waters before destroyed and after Rehabilitation 2004
Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 127-133
Physico-chemical characteristics of water from three stations (1- Garmat bani saed , 2-Al-Hammar , 3- Al- Cheibyesh northern Al-Hammar marsh were determined during the period (Jan. 2004), (April. 2004) and (Jul.
2004) and compared with studies before destroyed. Electrical conductivity (E.C)of water was increasing in station (1) ranging between (3.7-3.9) mS/cm2 while in other station (2 , 3) were ranging(1.6-2.2) mm/cm2, also salinity were increasing ranging between (2.36- 3.49), (1.28-1.40) and (1.02-1.28)%0 for station (1- 3) and respectively. Highest total dissolved solids (TDS) were recorded in station(1) ranging between (2368-2400)mg/l. Sulphate (So4)were distinctly higher in station (1) ranging between (1040-1250)mg/l compared with stations 2 and 3 that achieving (602-700), (361-400)mg/l respectively, Carbonate (Hco3) were (220-313), (200-240) and (200-220)mg/l for station above. Chloride and calcium ions concentration were increasing in station 1 (1313-
1350) mg/l and (144-133)mg/l for Cl and Ca+2 respectively. Total hardness (T.H) and magnesium ions
concentration were highest in station (3) ranging between (600-650) mg/l, (133-141)mg/l for (T.H) and Mg+2. Nitrite levels ranging between (0.28-0.33), (0.27-0.36) and (0.31-0.41) µg-at N/l for station (1-3) respectively while Nitrate levels ranging between (27.6-35.5), (22.4-30.7)µg-at N/l for station 2 and 3 and lowest in station 1 ranging between (9.2-15.8) )µg/l. phosphate (Po4) values were highest in station 3 (13.11-15.87) µg-at P/l compared with station 1 and 2 ranging between (0.161-0.813) and (2.232-2.811) )µg-at P /l for station 1 and 2 respectively . Dissolved oxygen (D.O) levels for water were ranging between (7-8.6) mg/l for all station during study. Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD)were very high achieving (3.9-4.8), (3.9-3.6) and (6.1-6.8)mg/l for stations 1-3 respectively. The increasing of nutrients levels (No2, No3, Po4)and Biological Oxygen demand (BOD) refer to increasing of microorganisms activities after return of water to Al-Ham mar marsh and decomposition of dead bodies left due to desiccation.
Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 134-139
The arenicolous Corollospora mesopotamica is newly described from the ti d al zone of khor AL-Zubair estuary, Basrah, Southern Iraq. The fungus is distinguished by its brown, 2-4(mostly2) celled ascospores. The new species is described and illustrated. A key to the identification of Corollospora species with brown
ascospores is provided.
Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 140-153
Samples of zooplankton were collected seasonally from seven stations in the marshes South of Iraq. For the period from December 2003 to November 2004, by plankton net 120 micron mish-size. Water temperature, salinity and pH were recorded at each station. The population density of zooplankton ranged between 52 ind./ m3 at station 5 (Al-Barga region) during Autumn, to 3309 ind /m3 at station 2 (Al-Turaba region) during Spring
2004. Crustacea was the dominated group in all stations because the Copepoda was very abundant and its comprised 62.4%, 67%, 89.9%, 62.5%, 31.5%, 49.9%, and 64.9%, in stations (1,2,3,4,5,6,7)respectively. The density of zooplankton is governed inversely by water temperature and to lesser extent by salinity. A total of 18 species of Cladocera belonging to 12 genera were identified in the area, 5 species are new records to the Iraqi
Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 154-159
The stomach contents of three catfish species were studied. These were Silunis triostegus Heckel, 1843, Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch, 1794), and Mystus pelusius (Solander in Russell. 1794). Fishes were collected from Al-Hammar Marsh near Al-Fuhoud during the period from March 1989 to Febaiary
1990. Small fish fonned 70.7% of the volume of food consumed by S. triostegus and 83.2% according to ranking index. While shrimp and insects larvae were rankfed first and fonned 47.7% and 59.4% of the food components M. petusis according to volumetric method and ranking index, respectively. Detritus and non-nutritional materials comprised 51.7% and 67.9% of stomach contents H. fossilis according to the
two methods mentioned above respectively M plusius was the most active feeding fish .
Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 160-172
Inventory and distribution of the aquatic plants historically recorded in the marshlands of Iraq were presented. More than hundred species of aquatic and amphibian plants have originally been recorded in the marshes of Iraq and less than 50% of this were recently recollected in 2004-2005. Several important aquatic plants such as the characteristic water lilies (Goaiba in Arabic) Nymphoides indica and N. peltata , the insectivorous Utricularia australis and the Arrowhead Sagittaria sagitifolia are seem to be disappeared. Until know sixteen obligate hydrophytes are not found. Two exotic species, Tamarix ramosissima and T. brachystichas invaded the area.
Eight main types of aquatic vegetation were been identified and described, of which Hydrilla community was a new type for Iraq. The present status of plant diversity and communities of the Iraqi marshes
was compared with that mentioned in the past.
Phragmites australis and Typha domengensis as bioaccumulators and biomonitors of three trace metals along Shatt Al-Basra canal, south of Hammer marsh.
Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 173-183
Three trace metals Cu, Pb and Zn at the region of Shatt Al-Basra canal in south of Hammer marsh, were determined monthly from Sep.2003 to Feb.2004 in water, surface sediments and two emerged aquatic plants (Phragmites australis and Typha domengensis) which were collected from four selected stations. Trace metal concentrations were high in the surface sediment with a clear local variation. While their values in the water samples were much lower than that found in the surface sediment, with clear local variations among the studied stations. P. australis showed its ability to accumulate higher concentrations of studied pollutants than T. domingensis and underground parts of both plants were accumulated higher concentrations than aboveground parts. The study of water samples and corresponding sediments from the canal near oil refinery discharging point showed that the area is polluted with different levels of Cu, Pb and Zn. Emergent aquatic plants P. australis and T. domingensis were good bioaccumulators and can be considered as an interesting candidate for potential use as
biomonitors and phytoremediate for such pollutants.