Volume 1, Issue 1, Spring 2006, Page 1-90
Seasonal Variations of the Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Water and Sediments of Southern Iraqi Marshlands after Rehabilitation 2003
Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 1-8
For the period Jan. – Oct. 2004, water and sediments samples were collected from different sites of Iraqi marshland; El-Hewizeh, Central, and Al-Hammar Marshlands. Analysis was done for the determination of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) in the water and sediment samples by adopting the spectroflourometric method according to standard procedures and comparison with standard solutions of Iraqi crude oil. Concentrations of TPH recorded in water from Iraqi marshlands were in the range of 0.6 – 46.82 , 20.48 – 39.87 , 14.28 – 26.16 and 11.64 – 17.427 µg/ml during winter 04, spring 04, summer 04 and autumn 04 respectively. For sediments range recorded were 29.12 – 103.80 , 23.84 – 93.51 , 15.17 – 61.89 and 14.37 – 48.14 µg/g dry weight during the same period of time respectively. Reported values indicate that Al-Hammar marshland is rich in petroleum hydrocarbons compared with other sites of study area except some alteration due to human activities such as in site no. 1 (El-Tarabah) in Al-Hawizeh marsh as fishing is the main source for living. Range of %TOC recorded in the sediments of marshlands were 0.284 – 1.032 being the highest in Al-Hammar marshes during winter
2003/2004 and showed alternative values during the whole period of study.
Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 9-18
The food habits of eleven sympatric fish species in Al-Hammar marsh were reviewed, data of previous studies on food habit were re-analyzed to calculate the diet overlap among the marsh fishes. Most previous studies were restricted on either one or two species food habit. Although the studies depend on different food analytical methods, similar findings were obtained for major food constituents. Only 11 significant overlap cases out of 55 were obtained. The eleven species were categorized into six groups depending on the priority of food items. The specialization and less diet overlap intensity indicate adequate rich (huge) food resources availability and partitioning among the fish species.
Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 19-31
The study includes the distribution of phytoplankton in water column of Habbaniya lake during 1996 and 1997 . A total of 116 taxa of phytoplankton were identified. The diatoms were the dominated by 70 taxa represented 60.3% of the total identified species . Followed by green algae (chlorophyta) of 30 taxa 25.8% , and then blue-green algae (cyanophyta) of 12 taxa 10.3% . Little increasing of cells count was recorded at 10 meter depth and without regular seasonal variation .Few species were dominated during the most studied period such as Aulacosiera granulate , Cyclotella ocellata , Navicula cryptocephala and Nitzschia palea .
Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 32-39
The sediments of Ahwar area are mainly clayey silt with small amount of sand. The sand fraction is of fine to very fine grains. The color of these sediments is influenced by the hydrodynamic nature of the environment, and the organic content. The surface sediments are divided into three main layers; a surface organic – rich sand silty layer to a depth 7cm, shelly clayey silt layer from 7 to 30cm in depth, and silty clay or/and clay layer more than 30cm in depth. The dominant sedimentary structures are bioturbation and lamination. The heavy and light mineral assemblages reflect the origin of these sediments which is the ancient outcrops transported by Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Low – Mg calcite, High – Mg calcite, dolomite and gypsum minerals are also present and considered as authigenic minerals. The detected clay mineral assemblage is smectite, chlorite, illite, mixed layer illite-smectite and kaolinite,
in addition to palygorskite as authigenic and allogenic mineral.
Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 40-46
The southern part of Iraq is considered to be an important area for migrating birds . This importance is due be to the geographical position on the migratory rout from Siberia to Africa . The extensive wetlands and marshes ( Ahwar) of lower Mesopotamia encourage these migratory birds to rest and feed during the non- breeding season. Most previous ornithological investigation and collections in Iraq were made by amateurs and researchers such as Sharpe ( 1886) Meinetzhagen (1914) Thornhill (1918) and Ticehurst et al. (1922), the most comprehensive study about the bird of Iraq was made by Allouse (1953,1956,1957 and 1958). Recent studies on water birds of southern Iraq where made by Scott and carp (1982) ; they survey the birds of southern Iraq during 1976 – 1979. Al Robaae (1986,1994; 1996 ,1998 , 1999 , 2001 ) published several about the waterbirds in southern Iraq concerned mainly with shorebirds and ducks especially diving dukes , birds count and Bird migration. During the last few years ornithological studies became very hard, if not impossible to pursue. The aim of the present work is to give a review on breeding waterbirds in southern
Mesopotamia , hoping future studies and research to conserve this group of birds in the marshland.
Biochemical composition and calorific value of six fresh water fish species from southern Iraqi Marshes
Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 47-53
Six fresh water fish species were collected from southern Iraqi Marshes . The biochemical composition of the muscles, showed that the protein content was varied from lower value of 17.79%, in Alburnus mossulensis up to the highest value 23.37% in Silurus triostegus. The fat content was ranged from 1.57% in Liza abu to 8.30%, in Barbus sharpeyi. The moisture content varied from 69.64 to 79.41%, whereas the ash content ranged from 0.89 to 2.35%, Calorific value were estimated . It ranged from lower value of 91.55
Kcal /100g in B.sharpeyi up to the highest value 162.42 Kcal/100g in L.abu. A posative relationship between the muscle fat and calorific value was observed
Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 54-58
Samples of rotifera species were collected from 12 stations represent the marshes of Basrah (7stations), Emara (3stations), and Nasria (2stations), during the period of December 2003 and August 2004. The density of rotifera were its at highest value (9694 ind./m3) in the st.2 of Nasria marshes while the lowest value was (1ind./m3) in the st.6 of Basrah marshes. From this study it was obvious that the species Brachiouns urcelaris
was the most occurances and abundance in all stations.
Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 59-73
Qualitative and quantitative study of phytoplankton and some related physico-chemical parameters were investigated .Samples were collected monthly for the period from May to October/2000 from 9 stations in southern Iraqi fresh waters and marine waters north-west Arabian Gulf.
Three different aquatic areas were recognized based on salinity values .These are Oligohaline area (1.5 - 2.6
0/00) , Mesohaline area (7.2 – 14.50/00) and Mesohaline – Marine area (10 – 400/00). Highest mean phytoplankton biomass as chlorophyll-a (13.9 mg m-3) was found in the first area compared with second area (5.53mg m-3 ) and third area (2.8mg m-3 ). This result is in agreement with N:P ratio values, where highest ratio (93.2:1)was recorded in the first area compared with second area (80.5:1) and third area (21.0:1). Present study included also
a list of phytoplankton taxa recoded in the study area along with their occurrence in the above three areas.
Isolation and Identification of Natural Polymers from the shells of Shrimp Metapenaeus affinis (H.Milne Edwards) Collected from Basrah Marshes South of Iraq
Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 74-81
Shrimp Metapenaeus affinis , were collected from Basrah marshes. Chitin were isolated from shrimps shell and transformed to Chitosan by deacetylation and then cross linking with pectic acid by glutaraldehyde to formed a semi IPNs then loaded with Nalidixic acid to decrease the absorption of the drug on urinary tract and increasing the retention time of drug in the body and this modification lead to the use of the drug for infections
other than urinary tract infections and decreasing the side effects of drug.
Seasonal variation for levels of nutrients in water from Southern Iraqi Marshlands after Rehabilitation 2003
Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 82-90
The levels of nutrients; Nitrites, Nitrates, Phosphates and Silicates were determined seasonally for the period Winter, Spring, Summer and Autumn 2004 in water from eight sites ,1-Al-Tarabah,2-Umm Al-Ward in Al-Hawizeh marshes, 3- El-Harasheen,4-Al-Fartoos,5- El-Saddah along Al-Izz river in the Central marshes, 6- Al-Duboon, 7- Al-Nagarah and 8- Al Barghah in Al-Hammar marshes. Collected water samples from all stations were transferred to Marine Science Center labs for Chemical analysis. Compared to nirates, the recorded nitrites were low in the range 0.001-1.300 µg at N-NO2-/l, while nitrates characterized by high values
specially in stations 1 and 2 and during winter which were in the range 1.939-42.200 µg at N-NO3-/l. Phosphate
levels were high in Al-Haweizh marshes while Al-Hammar marsh was characterized by high levels of silicates which were in the range 58.1-146.811 µg at Si-SiO2/l. These differences were explained on the basis of the
nature of the area and quality of the soil.