Similarity and dissimilarity of macroinvertebrates, fishes and quatic birds species composition in three major marshes of southern Iraq
Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 38-48
AbstractWhittaker beta diversity formula was applied to detect similarity and dissimilarity of species composition of Macroinvertebrates, total number of fishes, native fish and aquatic birds species in three major southern Iraqi marshes (Al-Huwaiza, East and West Hammar ). The outcome results indicated that species dissimilarity increased in southern marshes, (i) Due to enlarge of land isolation between southwest and southeast marshes, (ii) Intrusion of exotic, alien and marine fishes and crustacean species,( iii ) Third escalation of water salinity and progressive effect of the Gulf tide. Moderate levels of species dissimilarity were obtained for mancroinvertebrates, total number of fishes and aquatic birds among West Hammar and Al-Huwaiza marshes, on contrary species similarity increased for macroinvertbrates groups and aquatic birds between East and West Hammar marshes. Migrating marine fish species cause moderate dissimilarity in total number of fish species between East Hammar and Al-Huwaiza (βw :1.357), while good similarity value for native fish species was recorded (βw :1.262) in East and West Hammar. Presence or absences of tidal muddy shores led to low dissimilarity (βw:1.321-1.329) in aquatic birds species existed in the three marshes. Gradual rise of species dissimilarity of southern marshes taxa seemed to be inevitable with the escalation of environmental degradation of southern Iraqi marshlands .
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